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Full text of "Report on the migration of birds"

iL(or(c 



FEd 11 IS21 



REPORT 



ON THE 



MIGRATION OF BIRDS 



IN THE 



SPEING AND AUTUMN OF 1881. 



BY 

Mr. JOHN A. HAKyiE „BKOWN, Mr. JOHN COKDEAUX, 
Mr. PHILIP M. C. KERMODE, Mr. R. M. BARRINGTON, 

AND 

Mr. a. G. more. 



" It is much to be wished that some of the light-keej^ers of our lighthouses would 
make notes of their observations concerning seals, whales, birds, fishes, and other 
animals. Such records would be valuable ; and might not some of them occupy 
their leisure hours in the study of Natural History '?..., Interesting observations 
would then certainly be made, and new facts added to our stores of knowledge." — 
' Chajibeks's Journal,' p. 831 ; Dec. 23, 1876. 



LONDON: 
PRINTED BY WE!ST, NEWMAN & CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN. 

1882. 
S 



I 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BY WEST, NEWMAN AND CO. 

HATTON GARDEN, E.G. 



PREFACE. 



The following Report contains a summary of investiga- 
tions of a Committee, appointed by the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science, at York, in 1881, to consist 
of Professor Newton, Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown, Mr. John 
Cordeaux, Mr. Philip M. C. Kermode, Mr. J. Hardy, Mr. R. M. 
Barrington, and Mr. A. G. More, for the purpose of obtaining 
(with the consent of the Master and Elder Brethren of the 
Trinity House, the Commissioners of Northern Lights, and 
the Commissioners of Irish Lights) observations on the 
Migration of Birds at lighthouses and lightships, and of 
reporting upon the same at Southampton in 1882. Mr. 
Cordeaux to be the Secretary. 

An abstract of the Report was read by Mr. Philip 
M. C. Kermode at the meeting of the Association, held at 
Southampton, in August, 1882. 

The returns relating to Scotland have been arranged 
by Mr. J. A. Harvie Brown ; for the East Coast of 
England, by Mr. Cordeaux; the West Coast of England, 
by Mr. Kermode ; and those for the Coasts of Ireland, by 
Mr. R. M. Barrington, and Mr. A. G. More. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

East Coast of Scotland 1 

East Coast of England 16 

West Coast of Scotland 43 

West Coast of England 58 

Irish Coast 78 



THIKD REPORT: 



ON 



THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS 



IN THE 



SPEING AND AUTUMN OF 1881. 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 

Iceland and Fakoe. — Schedules, &c., were, as before, for- 
warded to Iceland and Faroe. Eeturns have come from Faroe, 
the results of which I prefer to keep under a separate heading, 
as they usually come in when the rest of the Eeport is well 
advanced. 

Of SaxicolincB there is one record on May 13th, when one 
Wheatear was seen on board the ' Arcturus,' thirty miles east of 
the Orkney Isles. Of HirundiniclcB, one seen at Thorshavn on 
May 22nd. Of Otidce, one Long-eared Owl was seen at Vivalvig, 
Stromo, on June 27th. Of Ardeidce, one Night Heron, Nycticm'ax 
griseus (Linn.), was killed at Videreijde on May 4th. In autumn 
several Turtle Doves, Columha Turtur, were seen, and one shot 
at Nolso on Sept. 7th. Of Rcdlidce, one Water Kail was killed in 
the hospital garden, at Thorshavn, on Oct. 31st. Of Laridce, one 
Pomatorhine Skua (young), was killed near Kirkebo on Oct. 26th. 
Of RallidcE, one Coot, Fidica atra, was shot at Nolso on Nov. 8th. 

The winds prevailing at the time of the above records for the 
most part southerly and easterly in Faroe, but on May 13th and 
22nd southerly and westerly, and also S.W. on Nov. 8th. 

The usual papers were sent to twenty-six stations, as before. 
With Iceland, Faroe and Fair Isle we have on this line thirty 
stations in all. 

B 



2 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Twelve stations on the East Coast of Scotland returned 
filled-in schedules, against eight last year — 1880 — out of the 
twenty-six. Many of these returns are very light, but those 
from Isle of May, Bell Eock and Pentland Skerries are unusually 
full, showing great highways of migration, and also that from 
Sumburgh Head. We shall have more to say on this in our 
general remarks at the end of the Keport. 

The stations are as follows, commencing in the north. The 
dates upon which the various stations have sent in returns are 
shown in the list by the positions of the asterisks preceding the 
consecutive numbers. The work done compares favourably with 
that of 1880, but we receive as yet only twelve returns from 
twenty-six stations ; however short, others will be acceptable, 
even if only negative information. 

Those sending no returns have not in all cases given reasons. 
Attention to this is earnestly requested {vide 2nd Report, p. 2). 

The numbers are the same as in the 2nd Report, 1880, but 
another for Fair Isle has been inserted as '' 7 b." 



1879, '80, '81. 



East Coast of Scotland. 

4. North Uist, Shetland ... 230 ft. Robert Burnett. 

5. Whalsey Skerries, Shetlnd. 145 ,, Neven Kerr. 

6. Bressay, Shetland 105 ,, 

7. Sumburgh Head, Shetland 300 ,, John Wilson. 
7 b. Fair Isle ? ,, — Lawrence. 



Orkney. 



8. North Ranaldsbay 

9. Start Point 

10. Auskerry -r 

11. Hoy Sound (Low) 

12. Hoy Sound (High) 

13. Cautick Head ..; 

14. Pentland Skerries 



Mainland. 



140 „ John TuUock. 

80 „ 
110 ,, John MacDonald. 

55 ,, Alexander Harp. 
315 „ 
115 „ 
170 „ D. MacDonald. 



- 15. Dunnet Head, Caithness... 346 
" IG. Holborn Head, Caithness 75 

17. Nobs Head, Caithness ... 175 

18. Tarbat Ness, East Ross ... 175 
•• 19. Cromarty, East Cromarty GO 



David Laidlaw. 
David Cliarleson. 

W. Davidson. 
Robt. S. Ritson. 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 3 

1879, '80, '81. 

20. Chanonry Point, Elgin ... 40 ft. 

21. Covesea Skerries, Elgin ... 160 ,, 

22. Kinnaird Head, Aberdeen 120 ,, 

23. Buclian Ness, Aberdeen ... 130 ,, 

" 24. Girdleness, Aberdeen ... 185 ,, John McGill. 
25. Montroseness, Aberdeen... 124 ,, 
'' * * 26. Bell Eock, off Fife Coast 93 „ James Jack. 
'' - '^ 27. Isle of May, Firth of Forth 240 „ J. Agnew. 
* - 28. Inch Keith, Firth of Forth 220 „ R. Grierson. 
29. St. Abbs Head, Berwicks. 224 ,, 

Notes received from other sources will aiDpear, as before, 
after the paragraphs on each species, as it is desirable to keep 
the two sets of observations distinct. I would also refer here to 
my *' Third Report on Scottish Ornithology," already referred to 
in * Migration Report, 1880,' p. 4, as having been read, but not 
yet printed (Feb. 1882). 

Notes have been kept upon about 25 species of waterfowl and. 
about 50 species of land birds by our reporters on the east coast. 
Spring migration I have not kept distinct in this Report. 
Obituary at each station, inappreciable at Scottish stations, 
will be noticed where necessary under General Remarks. 

Owing to Mr. T. Anderson having been almost entirely 
sailing to and fro in the Mediterranean, I regret that I can show 
no returns this year from mid-Atlantic, which is to be regretted, 
.as it would be instructive to learn what are the results of a con- 
trary prevailing wind to that of 1880. Possibly, however, Mr. 
R. Gray may yet be able to give us some returns of interest 
culled from the Mediterranean log, which may raise other points 
of interest. 

The following short notes on weather are compiled from the 
* Times ' Register for 1881, and checked by my own schedules : — 
A sudden change of temperature at the beginning of August, 
colder by about two degrees than July. Rainfall excessive over 
all Scotland, except northern half where it was less than average ; 
cold and wet all August, about six degrees colder than corre- 
sponding period of 1880. Prevailing wind W., seldom veering 
to E., until Aug. 2Brd; thereafter in Scotland prevailing E. and 
N.E.; on Aug. 31st N. winds prevailed, N.E., and continued till 
about Sept. 6th ; thereafter W. and N.W. till 16th ; then S. and 
S.E. till 21st; from 22nd to 24th E.; 24th to 30th S. to W. ; 



4 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Oct. 1st to 10th S. ; 10th to 13th strong W. ; 14th gale from E., 
and continued E. and S.E. to end of month. S.E. to S. strong 
winds and gales, or light from Nov. 1st to 11th ; S.W. strong 
and a gale 15th and IGtli ; frost on 17th ; 22nd S. to S.W. and 
W., heavy gales in N. and W. Unsettled, with frequent changes 
of wind and weather, many W. gales till end of month, and till 
Dec. 8th. N. and E. on both coasts from Dec. 9th to 12th, S. 
on 13th, and S. and W. on 14th ; S. and W. till 20th, when E. ; 
and W.K.W. on 21st. Prevailing W. and S.W. till end of month. 

Notes. — Prevailing winds at the time of the rush of Falconidce 
were W., veering from S.W. to N.W. in Aug. ; after 23rd E.; 
on and after Aug. 31st till Sept. 6th N. At XIV., on Aug. 19th, 
a Sparrowhawk was seen sitting on the ground, and almost daily 
for some time after. The nearest breeding-place I know of is at 
Tongue, N. Sutherland; wind at the time was light S., and. 
weather clear. No doubt it is difficult to discriminate often 
between local and general migrations of Hawks by our data ; thus 
at XIV. also, on Aug. 23rd and 24th, a Sparrowhawk was seen 
flying south on the former date, and N.E. on the latter; on the 
former date the wind was light S., on the latter N.E. ; this would 
therefore appear like a local migration. 

The only addition to the list of stations is Fair Isle, No. 7 b. 

In all spring records the numbers of stations begin at the 
most southerly, or with the higher numbers. In all autumn 
records the numbers of stations begin at the most northerly, or 
with the lower numbers. The maximum station, or station 
sending most returns of the species, is indicated when -thought 
necessary. 

TuRDiD^. — Autumn : Records at Sumburgh Head, Pentland 
Skerries, Girdleness, Bell Eock, and Isle of May (maximum). 
Earliest at Isle of May, Sept. 22nd ; latest at Sumburgh Head, 
Dec. 8th. Piushes at Isle of May, Sept. 22nd to 30th (see notes 
infra) ; also Oct. 20th. Ptedwings and female Blackbirds mi- 
grating between 14th and 24th. Great S.E. gale on 14th. At 
Pentland Skerries, Fieldfares, Thrushes, and Blackbirds, Nov. 
5th and Gth, flying N.E. all day; -also smaller rushes at Sum- 
burgh Head, Dec. 1st to 8th. Time of day : Mostly daytime, but 
night of 13th to 14th at Bell Pock. *' Storm burst at 10.10 a.m. 
on 14th." Notes : A great rush of migrants took place at the 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 6 

date of 22nd to 23rd Sept. at Isle of May (station 27), but no 
corresponding rush is recorded at Bell Eock (station 26). At 
Isle of May it continued all day. The weather was thick haze, 
approaching to fog, with a continuous downpour of rain ; wind 
S.E. ** All the birds seen to-day appeared perfectly bewildered." 
The following species occurred on 22nd alone : Thrushes, Red- 
starts, one Robin, one Blue-throated Warbler (C. Wolfi), 
Swallows, Chaffinches, one Nightjar (the first ever captured 
or seen here, and sent to me along with the Blue-throated 
Warbler and others), one Corn Crake (seldom seen here). Golden 
Plovers (large flock), Ringed Plovers, Lapwings, "rush" of 
Curlews, two Snipe, Sandpipers and Waders, and Dunlins. This 
great migration continued more or less all the latter part of 
September at this locality, during which time there appeared 
Yellow Buntings, Bramblings, Wheatears (or Stonechats), Pipits, 
and Wagtails ; numbers of Robins on 23rd. N.B. Later in the 
report under these species I^'will refer back to this note. 

Saxicolin^. — Spring : Bell Rock, and Whalsey Skerries. 
•Wheatears. Earliest at Bell Rock, April 14th ; latest at Bell 
Rock, May 2nd. Rush on May 2nd, at Bell Rock. General 
Notes : — Accompanied by many other species not recognised ; on 
that day also a large bird struck, rebounded, and fell into sea. — 
Autumn : Whalsey Skerries, Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries, 
Bell Rock, Isle of May, and Inch Keith. Wheatears. Earliest 
at Sumburgh Head, Aug. 14th ; latest at Pentland Skerries, 
Sept. 30th. Rushes scarcely appreciable, Aug. 22nd and 28th, 
at Whalsey Skerries, Sumburgh Head, and Pentland Skerries ; 
and Sept. 24th and 30th, at Pentland Skerries, Isle of May, and 
Inch Keith. Rushes at Pentland Skerries on several dates. 
Besides Wheatears, Redstarts. Earliest at Isle of May, Aug. 
22nd ; latest at Isle of May, Sept. 22nd. Whinchats (or Blue 
Janets), also at Isle of May, Sept. 21st. Prevailing winds E. 
and S.E. General Notes (see under Turdid^). 

Sylviin^. — Spring : Robins at Cromarty and Montroseness ; 
only two records. Earlier at Cromarty, March 20th, but left 
same date ; later at Montroseness, April 14th, flying about rock. 
— Autumn : Tarbat Ness, Cromarty, and Isle of May. Robins. 
Earliest at Cromarty, Sept. 16th, and were the first seen since 
March 6th (see Spring) ; latest seen Dec. 15th. At Tarbat Ness 
first seen Oct. 10th. Rush Sept. 22nd and 23rd, at Isle of 



6 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

May (see Notes under Turdid/E) ; also Oct. 21st, at Isle of 
May (" appear to be very small specimens.") Mr. Agnew pre- 
served one for me in spirits on Dec. 15tli, but whether one of 
these small specimens I cannot as yet say. N.B. Spanish 
examples are known to be very much smaller than British (vide 
Howard Saunders and H. E. Dresser). 

Phylliscopin.e. — Autumn : Gold Crests at Sumburgh Head, 
Tarbat Ness, and Isle of May. Earliest at Tarbat Ness, Sept. 
10th (two seen) ; latest at Isle of May, Sept. 27th. Rush, a 
small one, Oct. 24th, 25th, and 27th, at Isle of May. General 
Remarks: — Mr. Agnew says, "I expect more," but no more 
appeared in his later schedules. A general movement of this 
species appreciable also about Sept. lUtli to 18th. 

Parid^. — Spring : Tit. One record at Isle of May, April 
23rd. General Piemark : — One alighted on lantern at 11 p.m. — 
Autumn : Tits at Pentland Skerries and Inch Keith. Earliest 
at Inch Keith, Aug. 5th (a number at night) ; latest at Pentland 
Skerries, Oct. 6th (one all day). Another struck N.W. side of 
lantern of Inch Keith on night of 5th to 6th. General Remarks: 
— Aug. 5th, at Inch Keith (as above), " earlier than usual." 

Troglodytid^. — Spring : Common Wren. One record from 
Isle of May, March 19th. — Autumn : Sumburgh Head, Pentland 
Skerries, and Isle of May. Earliest at Sumburgh Head, Aug. 
3rd (left) ; latest at Pentland Skerries, Nov. 16th. Others Oct. 
6th and 8th. Rush (inappreciable) on these later dates. 

MoTACiLLiD^. — Spring : Bell Rock and Isle of May (only two). 
Wagtails. Earliest at Isle of May, March 12th; latest at Bell 
Rock, April 13th. General Remarks: — The latter "running 
over the rocks, but leaving at high tide, as all birds do that land 
upon these rocks" (J. Agnew) .-^Autumn : Pentland Skerries and 
Isle of May (three records). Wagtails. Earliest at Pentland 
Skerries (three all day), when a gale from N., Aug. 27th; latest 
at Isle of May, Sept. 24th, ''when* a few new-comers, having 
more white upon them than the few residents, appeared." Also 
occurred at Pentland Skerries, Sept. 10th. Pipits at Whalsey 
Skerries, Pentland Skerries, and Isle of May (few records). 
Earliest at Whalsey Skerries, Aug. 28th (following Sparrowhawk), 
but all left next day ; latest at Pentland Skerries, Oct. 25th (six 
struck at night). Rush (on small scale) at Isle of May, Sept. 
24th, 25th, and 26th. General Notes : — Mr. Agnew speaks of 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 7 

some being always here, but additions on Sept. 24th. Possibly 
Mr. Agnew alludes, however, to Eock Pipits as the residents. 
The Meadow Pipit is probably the species first seen as additions 
on Sept. 24th. N.B. The Eock Pipit is a larger bird than the 
Meadow Pipit; please shoot one of the "resident birds" and 
then one of the '' additions," and if carefully compared, I think 
Mr. Agnew will detect the difference. 

HiRUNDiNiD^. — Spring : Cromarty, Auskerry, Sumburgh 
Head, and Whalsey Skerries. First arrivals at Auskerry, May 
1st (Martins and Swallows remained three days and then left) ; 
latest, at T\T2alsey Skerries, June 27th (a few flying about). 
Kush hardly perceptible. General Notes :— At Sumburgh Head 
four pairs all summer ; all disappeared on night of July 20th. 
That night one pair slept on the staircase-mndow. — Autumn : 
Whalsey Skerries, Sumburgh Head, Auskerry, Pentland Skerries, 
Cromarty, and Isle of May (a number). Earliest (see remarks 
under Spring Migration, supra, July 20th) ; latest at Sumburgh 
Head, Oct. 1st (one seen). No great rush appreciable, but flocks 
of Swallows and Martins seen at Auskerry Aug. 1st and 4th, and 
on 1st at Isle of May (one found dead previous night after heavy 
gales) ; (see Notes under Tuedid^, suj^ra) part of a general rush 
of migrants. 

FringilliDxE. — Spring : Isle of May, Bell Eock, Sumburgh 
Head (considerable movement). Linnets. Earliest at Isle of 
May, March 4th (asleep all night on doorway) : two green Lin- 
nets. Latest at Isle of May, April 14th (seen). General Notes : 
— Two days previous " considerable number of Chaffinches, which 
are very unusual at this season ; also one Bullfinch." From a 
remark of Mr. Agnew, that some of the latter breed on Isle of 
May, I suspect these "Linnets" will prove to be Twites or 
Mountain hinneis, Linota Jlavirostris ? These Linnets are also 
noted at Bell Eock on April 10th, and at Sumburgh Head on 
March 7th. — Autumn : Sumbm-gh Head, Isle of May, and Inch 
Keith (large movement). Earliest (Grey Linnets) at Isle of May, 
Aug. 18th (mostly young, apparently in broods, in large num- 
bers) ; latest at Sumburgh Head, Jan. 14th, 1882 (three seen). 
Eushes (Chaffinches) at Isle of May, Sept. 22nd to 26th (see 
Notes under Turdid.e). Brambling also on 24th (one sent me 
for identification). Siskin at Inch Keith, Sept. 25th. [General 
Notes : — A desultory migration, kept up of Linnets and Siskins 



8 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

(which are rare on the Isle of May), occurred Oct. 4th and 5th. 
A Redpole on 8th, at Sumburgh Head.] A rush between Oct. 
20th and 27th at Isle of May, during which time Eedpoles (20th 
and 24th), Chaffinches (22nd), Bramblings (21st), one Siskin 
(27th), and Grey Linnets or Twites (24th), at Sumburgh 
Head; about fifty, along with ten Larks (see Alaudid.f.). 
Occasional birds seen at Isle of May : — Nov. 12th, one Siskin ; 
28th, one hen Linnet ; and on Nov. 21st, at Inch Keith, one 
Siskin. On Dec. 3rd, at Isle of May, one Redpole, preserved 
in spirits {vide infra), and one Brambling, same time and 
place. On the 4th, Green Linnets at Sumburgh Head, and in 
Jan., 1882 (latest), three Green Linnets on 14th. In Shetland 
prevailing winds during the winter were from S.W., ** and con- 
sequently no strange birds visited us." A flock of Mealy Eedpoles 
arrived at Lerwick, and took up their abode for a time in Mr. 
P. T. Garrick's garden, at Prospect House. This movement 
doubtless belongs to the Spring Migration of 1882. In August 
unusually large flocks of Greenfinches were observed by Mr. 
Service near Dumfries; left after two weeks, and reappeared 
in January, 1882. 

Emberizid,^. — Spring : Isle of May and Bell Rock. Earliest 
at Bell Rock, March 17th (one *' Snowflake " flying from N.W. to 
S.E.); latest (and only other spring record) at Isle of May, 
April 9th (three ''Mountain Sparrows ". identified as Snow 
Buntings). — Autumn : Whalsey Skerries, Sumburgh Head, Pent- 
land Skerries, Dunnet Head, Tarbet Ness, Isle of May, and Inch 
Keith, Snow Buntings, numerous records, and reported as 
unusually plentiful at many stations. Earliest at Isle of May, 
Sept. 24th, where, Mr. Agnew writes, "they are never i3lentiful" ; 
latest, Dec. 10th to Jan. 28!h, at Isle of May. Rushes at 
"Whalsey Skerries, Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries, and 
Dunnet Head, Sept. 20th to 25th (note migration of other species 
at Isle of May, Sept. 22nd — see notes under Turdid^). Rushes 
spasmodical, at different places, on different dates. Rush Dec. 
3rd to 21st; after, stragglers {i.e., flocks of forty or fifty). — 
Weather : In October winds S. and N.W., at Sumburgh Head, to 
fresh E. and N., cloudy, clear, or-showery. In November S. gale 
on 4th at Pentland Skerries. Calm or N. on 9th, S.S.W. or S. 
on 14th, and on 17th S. or N. December variable from light 
S.W. at Isle of May to fresh N.E. and S.E., light W. and light 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 9 

S.W. Besides Snow Buntings, a flock of about 250 Common 
Buntings are reported from Sumburgh Head on Nov. 6th (*' a 
compact flock"), at 10 a.m. 

Alaudid^. — Spring: A spring rush is reported at Bell Eock 
between Feb. 5th and 25th ; or possibly this may only belong to 
migration of 1880. Great numbers of Larks (mixed with Eose 
Linnets, Starlings, and other species, from 2 to 5 a.m. ; great 
numbers struck; wind on arrival light S.W., on departure fresh 
N.E., fog and rain. Feb. 18th, great numbers, all Larks, greatly 
exhausted, seen asleep, and others struck, but none found dead ; 
wind light E.S.E., haze. On 19th, " small birds, not recognised, 
flew about for an hour, and left at dawn " ; and on 25th great 
numbers, all Larks, much exhausted, at 1.30 a.m. ; left after an 
hour's rest at dawn, flying N.W. — Autumn : Sumburgh Head, 
Pentland Skerries, Bell Eock, and Isle of May (numerous). 
Earliest at Sumburgh Head, Sept. 15th (breeds here, but left 
to-day) ; latest at Isle of May, Dec. 1st (two seen). Eushes 
at Isle of May, Sept. 24th ; numbers on 25th and 26th, 
increased up to 27th ; also at Pentland Skerries (accompanying 
Wheatears) ; also fewer on Sept. 15th, 16th, and 18th. Eush 
at Pentland Skerries, striking all night, Oct. 26th ; stragglers 
on 1st and 8th. — Weather : Fresh S. wind Sept. 1st to 8th, to 
fresh S.E. and clear on 26th. Nov. 24th, at Sumburgh Head 
(along with Grey Linnets), fresh S., cloudy ; and Dec. 1st, at 
Isle of May, two seen, as above recorded. 

Sturninje. — Autumn : Auskerry, Pentland Skerries, Dunnet 
Head, and Isle of May. Unusually few, but all about same time. 
Earliest at Pentland Skerries and Isle of May, Oct. 20th and 
21st ; latest at Dunnet Head, Jan. 15th, 1882 (date of return of 
schedule). General Notes : — Eesident all winter at many localities 
as at Auskerry (''all winter "). The scarcity of the Starling on 
migration this autumn is noteworthy {vide conditions of wind 
and weather as compared with other years). 

CoRviD^. — Spring : Bell Eock and Isle of May. Earliest at 
Bell Eock, March 10th (seen on balcony-rail); latest, "five 
Eooks," at Bell Eock, flying about. May 1st. Eush (apparently, 
April 12th and 13th) at Bell Eock (Black Crows and a good many 
"Grey Crows" with them). On 16th, three Eooks flying N. — 
Autumn : Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries, and Isle of May. 
Earliest July 15th, at Pentland Skerries (mixed with Jackdaws) ; 



10 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

remained till middle of August, and then disappeared ; latest 
Nov. lOtb, two Ravens at Pentland Skerries, flying W., but no 
Eooks after Aug. 15th. Eavens also at Pentland Skerries, July 
29th. Hooded Crows. Earliest Sept. 14th, at Pentland Sker- 
ries ; latest on Nov. 5th, at Pentland Skerries. Rush on Oct. 
2nd, at Isle of May (large numbers). 

CypsELiDiE. — Autumn : Only records at Sumburgh Head. 
Earliest Sept. 13th, five seen at 6 p.m., light N.W. airs, clear ; 
next record Sept. 16th, one seen, light W., clear ; latest Sept. 
27th, one, light S.W., haze. 

CAPRiMULGiDiE. — Autumii : Only one record at Isle of May, 
where the first was observed, Sept. 26th, along with a great Rush 
of other migrants (see Notes under Turdid^, antea). 

SxRiGiDiE. — Autumn : Records at Auskerry and Isle of May. 
Earliest Aug. 25th, when one '' Grey Owl " seen at Isle of May, 
fresh E., heavy rain, and haze; latest Dec. 19th, one reddish 
brown Owl, at 1 p.m., S.W., clear, at same station. Other dates, 
Oct. 15th to llth, two Owls stayed three days, arriving at 
4 p.m. on 15th, leaving at 4 p.m. on 18th, at Auskerry, N.W. 
gale, showers, and haze. Also Oct. 24th, one 'Might brown" 
Owl at Isle of May, S.S.E., showery; also Nov. 28rd, one seen 
at Isle of May, 3 p.m., S.W., clear. 

Falconid^. — Autumn: Whalsey Skerries, Sumburgh Head, 
Pentland Skerries, and Bell Rock (all insular). Earliest July 
28th, at Whalsey Skerries, one Hawk flying N. ; latest Dec. 14th, 
at Isle of May, two '' large Hawks." Rush in August and Sep- 
tember, at Bell Rock, from which I have twenty-two returns in 
that time ; never so many seen here before. Kestrels, principally 
at Isle of May, till Aug. 18th ; latest Sept. 25th. Sparrowhawk. 
A rush at Pentland Skerries between Aug. 19th and 28th, or the 
same birds reappearing : all seen during the daj^time, along with 
all other Hawks. Merlin, one on Sept. 22nd, at Sumburgh 
Head; another on Oct. llth, feeding, on Snow Buntings, shot; 
other two seen. Falcon, one seen flying S.W., at Pentland 
Skerries, on Oct. 10th. Buzzards one (by description) flying S. 
at Isle of May, Sej)t. 27th. "Large Brown Hawks," or simj^ly 
" Hawks," occurring principall}^ at Isle of May. A rush between 
Sept. 6th and 19th, with E. winds' (see General Notes on weather). 
A great rush of Hawks, Eagles, &c., took place all over the 
country at the latter end of September. Amongst others the 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 11 

following are recorded : — Ospreys, Harriers, Common and Honey 
Buzzards. Especially Fifeshire is noted {vide 'Field,' Oct. 8th, 
1881, p. 514). Kough-legged Buzzards are recorded from 
localities in Forfar, Perth, and Stirlingshire, at similar stations 
as they usually appear at when their migration takes place, i. e., 
along almost precisely the same lines. 

Pelicanid^. — Autumn : Piecords from Sumburgh Head, 
Pentland Skerries, and Isle of May. Earliest July 1st, Gannets 
pass Pentland Skerries daily in flocks of twelve to forty, or 
singly, and continue till middle of September, which is the latest 
record I have. Kush past Pentland Skerries appears to have 
been on Aug. 19th, when 2300 were counted between daylight 
and dark, flying chiefly E., and very few going W. On Aug. 4th 
large numbers at 2 jD.m., at Sumburgh Head, fresh breeze, 
cloudy. At this station Gannets are noted as very scarce all 
summer, owing, it is believed, to scarcity of herrings. 

Akdeid^. — Spring : Only one Heron recorded at Whalsey 
Skerries, on May 29th, 8 p.m., S.E. light airs, clear; fog from 
N.W. after 11 p.m. — Autumn : Kecords at Sumburgh Head, 
Pentland Skerries, and Isle of May. Earliest Aug. 16th, at 
Sumburgh Head, flying N., chased by Gulls, light E. airs; 
latest Nov. 24th, at Isle of May, one seen, strong S.W., showers; 
Kush Sept. 3rd to 6th, at Isle of May, during which time eight 
were seen, all flying S., and four on the 5th, came from N., 
alighted and remained ; wind on 3rd fresh E., and haze ; on 5th 
fresh N.E., clear ; and on 6th light W., and haze (see Note, infra), 
Eush also on Oct. 12th, l&th, and 14th, previous to gale of 14th, 
but statistics scanty. All Herons seen at Isle of May almost 
invariably fly S. Prevailing winds at Isle of May, W., till gale 
on 14th from N.N.E. 

Anatid^e. — Wild Geese. Spring : Kecords at Whalsey 
Skerries, Auskerry, and Isle of May. Earliest March 6th, at 
Whalsey Skerries, eight resting on island for several days, 
E. gale, and haze; latest April 21st, at Isle of May, large flock 
flying E., accompanied by Curlews. — Autumn: Kecords at 
Whalsey Skerries, Sumburgh Head, Auskerry, Pentland Skerries, 
Isle of May, and Inch Keith. Earliest " Wild Geese," Oct. 2nd, 
at Isle of May, thirteen flying W. in line. Earliest '' Barnacle," 
only record, Aug. 12th, at Inch Keith, one flying due N. ; latest 
"Wild Geese/' Dec. 23rd, at Isle of May. Immense flock flying 



12 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

N.E., 11.80 a.m., S.W., haze, a^jproacbing to fog; and another 
flock same day, at 12.30 p.m. Besides the above, one " Brent " 
Goose (?) is noted on Nov. 25th, flying N., with S.W. gale, and 
showers. Swans. — Spring : Records at Sumbiirgh Head, Pent- 
land Skerries, and Bell Eock. Earliest Feb. 27th, at Sumbiirgh 
Head, two "Wild Swans," apparently much fatigued, flying S. ; 
latest May 6th, a flock flying N.E. Autumn: Records at 
Sumburgh Head. Earliest Nov. 12th, at Sumburgh Head, 
eight fl^'ing S.E.; latest Dec. 25th, at Sumburgh Head, two 
resting on a lock near the lighthouse, where they frequently rest 
on their way south every year. Note: — If these are the same 
birds each year, it is interesting as proving the undeviating lines 
of autumn flight of waterfowl. Eider Ducks. — Spring : AVhalsey 
Skerries only ; noted as arriving at breeding haunts on March 
9th. Autumn : Records at Whalsey Skerries, Auskerry, Pent- 
land Skerries, and Isle of May. Earliest July 5th, when Eiders 
left the island at Whalsey Skerries. " The Drakes had left pre- 
viously," light S., haze, and fog; latest Oct. 20th, at Auskerry, 
ten Eiders remained all day; they also remain at Auskerry all 
winter. Rush, largest number recorded at Pentland Skerries on 
Oct. 8th, when a flock of 100, mostly males, were seen swimming 
'past the island, light S. breeze, and fog ; and forty took shelter 
on Oct. 12th, at 9 a.m., at Whalsey Skerries, S.W. gale and 
rain ; and all left next day. Sheldrake. — Autumn : Having 
remained here (x\uskerry) all summer since end of June, leave in 
September or October. Records from Auskerry and Pentland 
Skerries. Earliest Aug. 27th, at Pentland Skerries, one found 
dead ; latest Oct. 5th, at Pentland Skerries, flock flying S.E. 
Other dates, Aug. 31st, at Pentland Skerries, flying S. ; Sept. 
3rd, flying about light, not striking. Teal. — One on Sept. 21st, 
at Isle of May, another at Pentland Skerries, on Oct. 8th. Wild 
Duck at Isle of May, Sept. 24th, Oct. 4th, and Nov. 21st. Long- 
tailed Duck at Sumburgh Head, Nov. 12th (about twenty). 
On Sept. 12th Tufted Ducks were abundant on Loch Leven, — 
the most abundant species there, — and the young were not able 
to fly, *' some being not larger than a Water Rat." Other species 
seen were Scaup, Golden-eye, Pophard, Teal, and Mallard (P. D. 
Maloch {in lit.). 

Rallid.t:. — Corn Crake. Spring : One arrival noted at 
Cromarty on May 19th. Autumn : One in. Isle of May, Sept. 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 13 

22nd (seldom seen here ; vide Notes under Turdid^) ; also Oct. 
22nd, at Isle of May, and one at Pentland Skerries ; the two 
dat6s are both dates of rushes of other migrants. The Spotted 
Crake has been recorded at several land stations, and found to 
recur at several where it occurred before. Thus one at Aberuthven 
Wood this season, and one at the same place three years ago 
(P. D. Maloch, in lit.). 

Chaeadriad^. — Golden Plover. Autumn: Whalsey Skerries, 
Auskerry, Pentland Skerries, Dunnet Head, and Isle of May. 
Earliest Aug. 3rd, at Pentland Skerries ; latest Dec. 23rd. 
Bushes Sept. 21st and 22nd, at Pentland Skerries and Isle of 
May; also on Oct. 17th and 18th, at Sumburgh Head and 
Auskerry. Oystercatcher. — Spring : Arrived Feb. 24th at 
breeding haunts on Whalsey Skerries ; two recorded at Isle of 
May, on April 12th. Autumn : Kecords mostly in August, at 
Whalsey Skerries ; left W^halsey Skerries on Aug. 26th ; scattered 
birds seen at Isle of May between 8th and 25th ; three records. 
Lapwing. — Spring: Arrivals in Aprir 1st to 15th, at Whalsey 
Skerries and Isle of May. Kushes about 1st and 11th, scarcely jper- 
ceptible. Autumn : Pentland Skerries and Isle of May. Earliest 
Aug. 27th, at Isle of May ; latest Nov. 22nd. Kush past Isle of 
May, Sept. 22nd; ''large numbers," by description, flying high 
(see TuE.DiD^). Kinged Plover. — Only date given is Sept. 22nd, 
at Isle of May, by description (see Turdid^). 

ScoLOPACiDiE. — Curlew. Spring: One record -at Isle of May, 
March 4th, four flying N.E. Autumn: Sumburgh Head, Pent- 
land Skerries, and Isle of May. Earliest July 20th to 30th, at 
Isle of May ; latest Dec. 31st, also at Isle of May. Kushes Sept. 
22nd, at Isle of May, numbers ; and at Pentland Skerries, a few. 
Maximum of records at Isle of May, but in all not many. 
Woodcock. — Autumn : Sumburgh Head, Pentland Skerries, and 
Isle of May. Earliest at Isle of May, Sept. 22nd; latest, 
beginning of December. Kush Oct. 20th, and for some days 
previous ; also arrival same day of many Kedwings (see TuRDiDiE). 
Snipe. — Autumn : Pentland Skerries and Isle of May. Earliest 
Aug. 31st, at Isle of May, one rose off island and flew away S. ; 
latest Dec. 21st, at Isle of May, one seen. Kush scarcely 
appreciable, but appeared also on Sept. 22nd, at Isle of May. 
Kecords mostly of single birds ; these two species exceedingly 
scarce this autumn ; severe winter of 1880-81 killed many, and 



14 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

severe spring interfered with breeding. ** Sandpipers." — Autumn : 
Pentland Skerries and Isle of May. Earliest Sept. 22nd, at Isle 
of May, a number (see under Turdid^) ; latest Dec. 17tli, also 
at Isle of May, large numbers. Rushes on these dates at Isle of 
May. Stragglers : species recognised and named : Dunlins, 
Redshanks (probably), Common Sandpiper. 

Larid^. — Terns. Spring : Arrived at Whalsey Skerries, 
Pentland Skerries, and Cromarty (Lesser Tern). Earliest May 
28th, at Whalsey Skerries; and at Pentland Skerries, ''arrived 
after hatching ! " May 12th, and remained till August; belongs 
to an autumn movement (?) ; also at Cromarty, arrived on June 
15th, left Aug. 20th. Terns appear irregular in hatching and 
dates of leaving various stations ; but most left all stations in 
August, and recorded at Isle of May, passing S. Sept. 12th, 22nd, 
and 28th. Kittiwakes arrived in spring, at Isle of May, March 
12th ; only other record, in autumn, Sept. 22nd, at Isle of May 
(see TuRDiD^) ; remained all August there, left end of month. 
Other species noted — Great Black-backed Gulls, flying S., Aug. 
13th ; large white Gulls, wheeling round Isle of May, Aug. 25th; 
Skuas (well described), Sept. 15th ; and Oct. 19th and 29th, at 
Pentland Skerries, where they are " very rare." Note : — Skuas, 
Pomatorhine Skuas frequented the Hebrides most of the summer ; 
I (J. A. H. B.) saw several west of Lewes, and one near Island of 
Rum in end of June. Iceland Gull. — A flight in December. 
Earliest Dec. 1st, at Sumburgh Head ; latest 28th, at same 
place ; and on 25th, same place, two, accompanying Swans. 
Storm Petrels. — At Whalsey Skerries two records, March 29th 
and June 22nd, in foggy weather, flying about lights. Autumn : 
Only one record of Fork-tailed Petrel at Isle of May, Aug. 15th, 
which struck, and was killed -and sent to me, of which I now 
have the skin. Two pairs Common Petrel bred at Auskerry.. 

Alcid^. — Razorbills. Spring : Whalsey Skerries and Isle of 
May, along with Guillemots. First arrivals at Isle of May, Feb. 
25th. '* Invariably arrive at Isle of May, remain a day or two, 
and leave again." Second visit March 16th, at Isle of May; 
arrived on third visit to breed, April 15th, but at Whalsey 
Skerries not till 30th. N.B. Dajies of arrival, and of preliminary 
visits from all rock bird stations in Scotland, much desired by 
committee. Autumn : All left Sumburgh Head on Aug. 6th ; 
all left Whalsey Skerries on Aug. 15th. Unusually large rush, 



EAST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 15 

flying S., passed Pentland Skerries on Nov. 12th ; at this station 
they pass almost daily, but this is date of general stampede. 
Hundreds swimming round Isle of May on Dec. 15th, the latest 
noted record here this year; and Mr. Agnew considers their 
numbers at this late date quite unusual. Besides the 75 identified 
species, or thereby, I have innumerable records of species which 
cannot be recognised by description; and especially numerous 
are the records from Isle of May, Mr. Agnew being very desirous 
of learning more about them. He sent me numerous birds for 
identification; amongst those not sent or recognised, two birds, 
"never before seen," resemble a Cuckoo in every respect, but 
smaller ; others, called " Kedtails " (? Kedstarts), came in a flock 
on June 3rd, and stayed till July 2nd. A great many entries 
are simply " small birds " from Aug. 16th and 17th, and Sept. 
14th to 30th. On Oct. 25th " a few more pretty birds, with red 
breasts, forked tails, and two black stripes on head." On Oct. 
27th, one ''pure white down belly and round back, black spot a 
little above tail, wings on top side a dun black, head and neck 
same, red legs, bill like a Starling, size of a Plover." Again on 
Nov. 2nd, two, ''the general colour that of a Lark, same size, 
three dark or black stripes down back, and one white feather 
each side of tail." It is worthy of remark that these unknown 
species struck most during easterly breezes (J. A. H. B.) I trust 
another season to be better prepared to have some of these 
identified. I have only mentioned them here to draw attention 
to the fact that probably rare things, like the Blue-throated 
Warbler (C Wolfi), may turn up. I might easily offer suggestions 
as to what these unnamed are, but I do not think any practical 
use would come by doing so. 

General Eemarks. 

I have embodied all remarks on both coasts at the end of 
the Eeport on the West Coast of Scotland, to which I refer 
my readers. 



16 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 

Feinted forms of enquiry and letters of instruction were sent 
to thirty-four lighthouses and light-vessels on the east coast of 
England, and two stations on the Channel Islands, thirty-six 
altogether against thirty-seven in 1880, and returns have been 
received from twenty-five. 

Independent reports have also been sent in from Heligoland, 
Seaton-carew and Kedcar, Flambprough, Spurn, North-east 
Lincolnshire, and Northrepps, making a total of thirty-two 
reporting stations against thirty-eight in 1880. 

My best thanks are due to H. Giitke, T. H. Nelson, C. Donald 
Thompson, Matthew Bailey, William Eagle Clarke, H. Bendelack 
Hewetson, M.D., J. H. Gurney, jun.. Colonel Russell, and G. P. 
Hope, for many interesting notes sent in, and for general kind 
co-operation and assistance in the enquiry. 

Special thanks is also given to the various observers on the 
lighthouses and light-vessels whose names are given in the 
Eeport ; and it is to be regretted that no less than eleven stations, 
from causes unknown to the writer, have failed to make returns, 
more especially as some of these were amongst the best returning 
stations in 1880. It is much to be hoped that this year the 
returns will be more numerous and complete. 

The east coast stations are as follows, those making returns 
being marked with a star (*) :j— 



Longstone l.h.I 
"^'Inner Fame l.h. 
*Coquet Island l.h. 
*No. 5 Buoy, Teesmouth l.v. 
*Whitby, High, l.h. 
*Flamborough Head l.h. 
'i^Spurn Point l.h. 

Spurn (Newsand) l.v. ... 



Thomas H. Cutting. 
William Evans. 
Henry Harbord. 
John Odgers. 
Charles Hood. 
James B. Smith. 



f For nature of light, and position and description of station, see 
previous Reports. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 



17 



*Outer Dowsing l.v. 
'^Inner Dowsing l.v. 
^Dudgeon l.v. 
'''Lynn Well l.v. 
^Hunstanton l.h. 
"^Cromer l.h. 
*Leman and Ower l.v. 
'''Hasbrough l.v. 

Hasbrougli l.h. 

Newarp l.v. 

Winterton l.h. 
*Cockle L.v. 

Orfordness l.h. 
*Corton L.v. 
"^Sliipwash L.v. 
'''Galloper l.v. 

Kentish Knock l.v. 
*Swin Middle l.v. 
* Tongue l.v. 
*Nore L.V.... 

North Foreland l.h. 

Goodwin l.v. 

''''Gull L.v 

'''Southsand Head l.v. .. 

*Eastside l.v. 

South Foreland l.h. 

Casquets (Alderney) l.h. 
*Hanois (Guernsey) l.h... 



Samuel Sheet. 
William K^ing. 
Thomas Dale. 
George Eees. 
William Westmoreland. 
Eichard Comben. 
Charles Perfrement. 
Jolm Nicholas. 



Samuel Pender. 

W. T. Cotton. 
Thomas Eandule. 
John Quested. 

Thomas Barrett. 
Eobert Crancher. 
George Ladd. 



Francis Harvey and 
Anthony Collins. 
J. C. Leggett and 
J. G. Fornman. 
Thomas Eees. 



Charles Williams. 



SEPARATE REPORT ON EACH SPECIES. 

Song Thrush, Turdits musicus, Linn. — Spring migration 
observed at one station only on the east coast. May 2nd, some 
seen at Inner Fame l.h., with Blackbirds and one King Ouzel, 
E.N.E., mist and rain. In the autumn occurred at the majority 
of stations from Inner Fame l.h. to Hanois l.h., off Guernsey : 
earliest date Nov. 2nd, at Flamborough l.h., several round 
lanterns during night with Larks and Starlings ; latest, Nov. 
30th, Heligoland, passing all day with Fieldfares. Greatest 
number occurred between Oct. 18th and 23rd at Inner Fame l.h., 



18 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Flamborough Head l.h., and Dudgeon l.v., wind E.S.E., S. 
Migration extended over about two months, line of flight 
generally E. to W. 

Eedwing, Tardus iliacus, Linn. — First at Cromer l.h. on 
August 1st, 3 a.m., five killed ; last at Inner Fame, Nov. 1st, all 
day with Thrushes. Great rush, Oct. 18th to 22nd. Migration 
extending over three months. 

Fieldfare, Turd us pilaris^ Linn. — First, Cromer l.h., Sept. 
14th, 1 p.m., fog and rain, two killed; last, Heligoland, Nov. 
30th, great many passing; also same date at Inner Fame l.h., 
two flocks to W.N.W. Oct. 19th, at Teesmouth, before day- 
break, several were heard "chuckling" high overhead by 
fishermen going out to sea, flying S.W. to W., wind E., strong 
rain. The Fieldfare has been most exceptionally scarce on the 
English coast during the autumn and winter. 

White's Thrush, Turdus vajiiis, Pall. — One early in January, 
1882, at Waplington Manor, near Pocklington, Yorkshire. 
(Zoo!., 1882, p. 74.) 

Blackbird, Turdus merula, Linn. — Spring migration observed 
at Cromer on Jan. 29th (1881), 4 a.m., fog, two at lantern; 
and also, Feb. 5th, six at midnight, three killed. At Inner 
Fame l.h. they were seen in some numbers at 8 a.m., on May 
22nd, with Thrushes. No Blackbirds crossed Heligoland in 
the autumn. On English east coast they .were noted at several 
stations from Inner Fame l.h. on Oct. 2nd to the 28th at Hanois, 
several striking there at 10 p.m. A great rush at several stations 
from Oct. 21st to 25th inclusive, wind E.S.E., strong. During 
the first week in November large numbers were observed in 
North-east Lincolnshire, direction of flight E. to W. and S.W., 
and E.S.E. to N.W. 

Pdng Ouzel, Turdus torquatus, Linn. — Inner Fame l.h., one, 
May 2nd. In the autumn, at the same station, Oct. 3rd, one ; 
and at several stations from Oct. 23rd to 25th, when there w^as a 
rush. None are recorded after this date, except one at Inner 
Fame on Nov. 30th. Migrate like the rest of the Turdince, both 
by day and night, and in the same dii'ection. 

Common Wheatear, Saxicola oniantJie (Linn.). — In spring of 
1881, first at Hunstanton l.h., March 25th, several all day, and 
foui" days later at Inner Fame, 9 a.m., N.N.E. (four), snow, 
several ; many, same station, first week in May. In the autumn. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 19 

first at 5tli Buoy, Tees l.v., on Aug. 18th, great many, and sub- 
sequently, up to end of first week in September, large numbers at 
several stations observed passing along east coast southward. 
At Spurn, on Sept. 14th, passed in thousands, and still far from 
scarce on 17th. From Heligoland Mr. Gatke reports, under date 
Sept. 3rd: — "Numbers of small birds at the lighthouse from 
3 a.m., at which hour the weather moderated with a change 
from N.E. to E. by S. ; all day multitudes of phoenicurus, 
trochiliis, luctuosa, E. hortidana, A. arhoreus and pratensis, 
S. oenanthe. Night, from 3rd to 4th, great numbers of above 
caught at lighthouse : among forty-nine oenanthe, but three old ; 
amongst {ovtj-seYen jyhcenicurus, eleven old." — "Mem. Trochilus 
turned u]) after midnight ; phoenicurus and cenanthe, multitudes 
of young males, early in the night (later also) ; but the few old 
birds appeared later after midnight." — Spring migration, 1882, 
March 19th, Spurn, several seen. 

Whinchat, Pratincola riihetra (Linn.). — First week in Sep- 
tember, many, with Wheatears in the North-east Lincolnshire 
marshes. 

Stonechat, Pratincola ruhicola (Linn.). — Great numbers at 
Whitby L.H. on April 3rd. In the autumn, first on Northumber- 
land and Durham coast, Sept. 8th and 9th, and Spurn, Sept. 
15th; last, at Inner Fame on Oct. 26th, E.S.E. (three), two 
seen. 

Kedstart, Ruticilla plioenicurus (Linn.). — The migration of the 
Eedstart seems so inseparably connected with that of the Wheat- 
ear that it is difficult to disconnect the two. On May 1st one 
killed at Hunstanton l.h., 11 p.m., S.W., o.m. In the autumn, 
in August, September and October, at many stations, the main 
body passing south in earty part of September with the Wheat- 
ears. On the 4th they were observed in great numbers along 
the line of sandhills, near the entrance of the Humber, generally 
young of the year, only four old males being seen. At Heligo- 
land, in August and first half of September, a great many 
passed, and on 17th immense numbers ; on 10th with M. luctuosa. 
At Teesmouth (Eedcar) a considerable flight came in on Sept. 
22nd, during night or early morning, wind E., gales and very 
stormy ; all were 3''oung birds, males and females ; last observed 
at Inner Fame on Oct. 23rd, E.S.E. (seven). The latest immi- 
grations were associated with Eedbreasts. 



20 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

White- spotted Bluethroat, Cyanecula leucocyana (Brehm.) — 
On Se^Dt. 3rd an immature bird was shot by Mr. Power at Clej^ 
Norfolk. Another, also immature, is recorded by Mr. J. A. 
Harvie Brown, in the Eeport from the east coast of Scotland, 
captured at the Isle of May lighthouse on the night of Sept. 
22nd. 

Redbreast, Erithacus rnheciila (Linn.). — March 5th, day- 
break, at Whitby l.h., many Redbreasts. The first occurrence 
in the autumn, September 5th, at the 5th Buoy, Tees l.v., when 
one came on board. At the Leman and Ower l.v. large numbers 
passed to W. with Wrens on Sept. 22nd. Same date, and to the 
25th, many at the Inner Fame l.h. Whitby on 20th. Also 
occurring at several stations through October in considerable 
numbers, as far south as the Inner Dowsing l.v. Very large 
numbers at Spurn, from October 2nd to 8tli ; on the 3rd so worn 
out with a N.E. gale they might be caught by hand. Some 
crossed Heligoland on Oct. 24th. Migration extending over two 
months. 

Whitethroat, Sylvia riifa (Bodd.) ; Lesser Whitethroat, 
S. curruca (Linn.) ; Blackcap, *S'. atricapilla (Linn.) ; Garden 
Warbler, S. salicaria (Linn.). — One common Whitethroat killed, 
Cromer l.h., Feb. 21st, 1881, N.E. (4), o.m. Spurn, Sept. 
Brd, Warblers of all kinds abounded. Greater and Lesser 
Whitethroats, Blackcaps, and Garden Warblers : — At Teesmouth 
(Redcar), Sept. 22nd, several, E. gale and rain. Spurn, one 
male Blackcap on Oct. 8th. Some Whitethroats passed Heligo- 
land on Oct. 24th. On the English coast the migration of the 
Sylviance is carried on during August and September ; the main 
body passing south with great regularity in the first week in the 
latter month. 

Gold-crested Wren, liegulus cristatiis, Koch. — Spring migra- 
tion on March 19th. Cromer l.h., two killed against lanterns, 
3 a.m., W. (four), b.c.m. ; and at Hunstanton, April 14th, 2 a.m., 
one, with a Flycatcher, killed. In the autumn Goldcrests first 
observed at Hanois l.h., Sept. 1st, midnight, o.m., along with 
Whitethroats ; several killed. Subsequently throughout October, 
both by day and night, at stations from the Inner Fame l.h. to 
the Tongue l.v., off the Thames. A great many Goldcrests 
crossed Heligoland from Oct. 18th to 24tli, E., clear, fine, but 
fresh. The arrival of Goldcrests at Spurn as early as Sept. 5th, 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 21 

associated as usual with Woodcocks and Short-eared Owls (three 
widely separated species, which are, however, inseparably con- 
nected in their migrations), is remarkable, as being one month 
in advance of their average time. On the Suffolk coast, in great 
numbers from Oct. 12th to 17th. 

Willow Wren, Phijlloscojms trochilus (Linn.). — At Spurn, last 
week in August, immense numbers of Willow Wrens passed on 
migration along sandhills. 

Long-tailed Titmouse, Acredula caudata (Linn.). — Heligoland, 
Oct. 22nd, S.E. gale, some; Parus atevy Linn., a few; Pariis 
borealis, Be Selys, Nov. 10th, one seen, but not obtained. 

Great Titmouse, Parus major , Linn. — Oct. 7th to 17th, many 
in N.E. Lincolnshire. 

Blue Titmouse, Parus cceruleus, Linn. — Inner Fame l.h., Oct. 
20th, E.S.E. (five), many. 

Common Creeper, CertJiia Jamiliaris, Linn. — Inner Fame, 
Oct. 5th, squally, one shot ; was running rapidly up a stone wall 
near lighthouse at time. 

Common Wren, Troglodytes parvidus, Koch. — At Cromer, 
night, April 9th, one killed against lantern. First at Flam- 
borough in the autumn ; July 17th, several round lantern all 
night, o.m. ; the next notice is Aug. 12th. Shipwash l.v., from 
noon to 2 p.m., large numbers with Kedbreasts to W.N.W. 
Aug, 21st, again at Flamborough, many round lantern all 
night. Spurn l.h., 10 p.m., three killed, in company with other 
small birds. Flamborough, Sej)t. 7th, again during the night, 
many with Wheatears around lantern. At the Leman and 
Ower L.V., Sept. 22nd, large numbers during day, with Eed- 
breasts, to W. Last occm-rence was Inner Fame l.h., Oct. 4th, 
many. Migration extending over eighty days. 

Wagtails, Motacillidce. — March 8th, at Whitby, many Pied 
Wagtails, 9 a.m. Oct. 20th, Hanois l.h;, 9 p.m., E.S.E. (six), 
cm., many, with Thrushes, striking glass. 

Meadow Pipit, Anthus pratensis (Linn.). — April 15th, at the 
Dudgeon l.v., one, with a common Sparrow, came on board, 
leaving again for W. In September large flocks continued to 
arrive at intervals in North-east Lincolnshire, and pass on; 
and again on the 13th, at Spurn, there was an extraordinary 
migration going on all day from N. to S. 

Tawny Pipit, Anthus campestris (Linn.). — Considerable num- 



22 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

bers at Heligoland in September, much more than have been 
seen for j^ears. 

Richard's Pipit, Anthus richardi, Vieill. — Up to Oct. 18th, at 
Heligoland, several seen, and about half a score of 3'oung birds 
shot; Oct. 24th, two; 26th, one. E., fresh, cold. 

Great Grey Shrike, Laniiis excuhitor, Linn. — Several, Spurn, 
in October ; one seen by me there, Oct. 24th, and another with a 
Eedbreast in its beak. One occurrence, first week in same 
month, on the Lincolnshire coast. Six together were noticed by 
Miss M. M. Smith, near the lighthouse, at Spurn, on Feb. 17th, 
probably on the spring migration to the Continent. 

Waxwing, Ampelis garrulns, Linn. — Small flock on Westwood 
Common, near Beverle}^ on Nov. 3rd. Several at Heligoland, 
from Dec. 12th to end of month. 

Flycatcher, Muscicajjci ! — Dudgeon l.v., April 12th, twenty- 
five Flycatchers to W., wind S. Hunstanton, April 29th, seven 
or eight about lanterns during night ; and same station. May 6th, 
several at night, wind S., stormy. At the Swin Middle l.v., 
Aug. 20th to 21st, 9 a.m. to noon, several to W. At Spurn, on 
Sej)t. 4th, two or three females, or young of M. atricapilla, Linn., 
Pied Flycatcher, and others up to 10th. Through August and 
to Sept. 17th immense numbers of M. atricapilla and Redstarts 
crossed Heligoland. 

Swallow, Hirundo rustica, Linn. — In* the s^Dring, first at 
No. 5 Buoy, Tees l.v., on April 23rd, going S.E. to N.W. ; and 
after this at several stations up to May 27th, the most southerly 
the Leman and Ower l.v., forty-eight miles N.E., Cromer; 
general line of flight E. to W., or S.E. to N.W. In the autumn 
Swallows were observed goings south, first, at Inner Fame l.h., 
on July 15th ; the main body passed south, as noticed at Tees- 
mouth l.v. and Whitby, in immense numbers between Aug. 28th 
and Sept. 8th. Stragglers seen at Spurn up to Oct. 29th. Were 
seen almost daily near Brighton during the first fortnight in 
November moving eastward towards Newhaven, from near which 
place, at Seaford Head, they cross to the Continent. At the 
Gull L.v. (Godwin Sands), on July 29th, 5 to 7 a.m., continuous 
flocks were observed to N.W., anS subsequently up to Sept. 26th 
at intervals, all passing westward. 

Martin, Chelidon urhica (Linn.) — First, Whitby, May 10th, 
passing N. On August 18th, Tees L.v., vast numbers to S. At 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 2S 

Hampton Court Palace Gardens stragglers noticed as late as 
Nov. 27th, 

Goldfinch, Carduelis elegans, Steph. — On Oct. 19th, Hanois 
L.H., 10 a.m., some flocks ; blue sky and cloudy. A few at Spurn, 
Oct. 27th. Mouth of Deben (Suffolk), Oct. 10th, very great 
numbers. 

Siskin, Chrysomitris spinus (Linn.). — First at Spurn, Oct. 3rd, 
subsequently during the month very numerous ; flocks up to 
twenty ; more generally two or three together clinging to tops of 
ragwort and Astei' Tripolium ; a few old males, the bulk females 
and young of the year. They crossed Heligoland in considerable 
numbers : first on Oct. 18th ; last, Nov. 30th. 

Greenfinch, Ligurinus Moris (Linn.). — On Sept. 12th, 10 a.m., 
N.N.W. (7), o.m., at Hunstanton l.h., large fiocks came in. At 
Spurn, Oct. 25, 26th and 27th, small flocks, female and immature. 
Heligoland, Oct. 18th, some. Immense numbers congregated in 
the marsh district of North-east Lincolnshire, late in October and 
early in November ; females and young of the year, old males 
about one in a thousand. The aggregated flocks, numbering 
many thousands, frequenting the stubble fields for some weeks, 
where they, found an inexhaustible supply of food in the corn 
threshed out by the great gale in harvest time, on Aug. 22nd. 

Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linn.). — At the Outer Dowsing 
L.V., fifty-three miles S.S.E. of Spurn, on April 15th, ten common 
Sparrows on board, travelling from S.E. to W. In the autumn 
occurred at several stations from the East Godwin l.v., on Sept. 
9th and 10th, to Gorton l.v., Dec. 19th, none occurring at 
stations north of the Outer Dowsing; line of flight E. to W., or 
S.E. to N.W. Sometimes remaining all day on board the light- 
vessels, or spending the night there. 

Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus (Linn.). — None north of 
Spurn, but south of this at several stations, as far as the 
Godwin l.v.'s, in October and early in November. In North-east 
Lincolnshire large flocks of both species came in with the Green- 
finches, feeding with them in the same localities. 

Chaffinch, Fringilla ccelehs, Linn. — First at Spurn, Oct. 9th, 
females and young ; last at Gull l.v., Nov. 13th, 8 a.m. to noon ; 
continuous to W. with Linnets. None recorded north of Spurn. 
Large numbers crossed Heligoland, Oct. 3 8th or 24th, with 
Bramblings. 



24 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Brambling, Friuf/illa montifringilla, Linn. — Spurn, Oct. 3rd, 
single old males ; 26th, one or two ; 27th, flock of about two 
hundred males : examples obtained had their stomachs filled 
with the husked seed of the common charlock. Bramblings 
passed Heligoland on the 24tli with F. ccclehs and L. cannahina. 
E., very strong; and again some Nov. 30th. 

Linnet, Linota cannahina (Linn.). — Gull l.v., Nov. 13th, 
8 a.m. to noon, with Chaftinches, continuous to W. 

Mealy Redpole, Linota linaria (Linn.). — Spurn, considerable 
flight night of Oct. 24th ; subsequently observed in small flocks, 
twenty to thirty, more generally three or four together, on stalks 
of ragwort or Aster Tripolinm ; a few old males, very light coloured 
and mealy looking, having the breast and rump washed with 
crimson-rose, which colour some kept in captivity retained 
throughout the winter. Out of twenty-four obtained during the 
last week in October twenty-two were males, either old or young. 
Examples shot, from the same flock showed great disparity both 
in the length and depth of the bill, indicating probably an immi- 
gration from widely separated districts in Scandinavia. These 
Eedpoles were feeding on seeds of Scirpus maritimus and Daucus 
Car Ota, rejecting the husks. Very large numbers crossed Heli- 
goland in October, and again on Nov. 30th, and almost daily in 
December to 20th. At the Inner Fame l.h., on Oct. 6th, many 
were noticed. 

Lesser Redpole, Linota riifescens (Vieill.) — Oct. 26th, three at 
Inner Fame l.h. ; and under date of Oct. 24th, Eedcar, Mr. T. 
H. Nelson writes, five came and alighted in front of my window, 
evidently very tired ; they came from seaward, 10 a.m. ; two or 
three were in the garden, and Lsaw several on the South Gore ; 
E.S.E., snow and rain. Oct. 25th a large flock in an adjoining 
field. As the range of L. rufescens is confined to the British 
Isles these occurrences are probably referable to a closely-allied 
species, the Linota exilipes of Coues, the Common European 
Redpole, which, so far, has not been recognised as occurring in 
Great Britain. 

Twite, Linota flavirostris (Linn.) — Spurn, Oct. 25th to 27th, 
numerous ; examples obtained had the rump rosy pink. 

Common Bunting, Eniheriza miliaria, Linn. — Spurn, Oct. 
25th to 27th, large arrival. 

Yellow Bunting, Emberiza citrinella, Linn. — Whitby l.h., 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 25 

March 8th, many, 9 a.m. Same station, Oct. 17th, great numbers 
at same hour. At Teesmouth (Eedcar) some on South Gare on 
morning of Oct. 25th, with other immigrants. 

Rustic Bunting, E. rustica, Pall.^ — Spurn, Sept. 17th, one, 
presumed to be a female, shot on the beach near Easington by 
Mr. Townend, schoolmaster. On the same date a fine young bird 
was obtained on Heligoland. Light variable easterly winds over 
North Sea at time. 

Little Bunting, E. pusilla, Pall. — Sept. 17th, Heligoland, 
seen but not obtained. Oct. 19th, one. 

Reed Bunting, E. schoeniclus , Linn. — Teesmouth (Redcar), 
Sept. 22nd, a flock in conjunction with Chiffchaffs and Lesser 
Whitethroats. 

Lapland Bunting, Plectrophanes lapponicus (Linn.). — One shot 
at Tetney, near Great Grimsby, Dec. 27th, by Mr. G. E. Power. 

Snow Bunting, P. nivalis (Linn.). — First at Spurn, Sept. 10th, 
an old bird on beach ; then, at Inner Fame, on Oct. 6th, four ; 
wind E.N.E. (3). At Heligoland, on Oct. 26th, 28th, 29th, 
30th, 31st, easterly winds to N.W. and S.W. ; 26th, 9 p.m. to 
midnight, great many passing overhead ; 28th and 29th, rain 
and hail, both days very great numbers ; 30th, great many ; 31st, 
flights of thousands high overhead — one old to about one hundred 
young. Enormous and unusual flocks occurred from the Fame 
Islands to N.E. Lincolnshire, from Nov. 14th to end of the year. 
In the latter district, also near Redcar, many thousands together 
remaining for weeks on stubble-land feeding on shaken corn. At 
the South Tees l.v. the great rush was on the 23rd, 24th, and 
25th Nov., and again 6th and 10th of Dec, flying S.W. At Inner 
Fame l.h., Dec. 4th, 11 a.m. to 3 p.m., immense numbers to W. 
and W.N.W. ; very few old birds observed. On Nov. 8th and 9th, 
at Heligoland, thousands upon thousands passed night and day 
along with Shore Larks, Otocorys alpestris. In spring of 1882, 
March 28th, Spurn, a few ; 29th, one on beach. 

Sky Lark, Alauda arvensis, Linn. — On the night of July 25th, 
1881, large numbers occurred at the Dudgeon and the Leman and 
Ower L.v.'s, round the lanterns, in the former case associated with 
Starlings and Snipes ; fifty fell on deck, and sixty at Leman and 
Ower. Again, at these same light-vessels, on March 6th and 
7th, great numbers occurred during night. In the autumn Sky 
Larks occurred at all stations from the Inner Fame to Hanois. 

E 



26 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Earliest, Sept. 12th, Lynn Well l.v. ; latest, Galloper l.v., July 
8th, 1882. Great rush Sept. 20th, and again Oct. 17th, 18th, 
19th, being then continuous all day at many stations between 
Flamborough and Nore l.v., less each day to 25th ; frequently 
associated with Starlings. At the most northerly stations the 
direction of flight was south, from Spurn to the English Channel 
E. to W. or S.E. to N.W. Many occurred round the lantern of 
the Galloper l.v. on night of July 4th and 8th (seventy caught 
alive on latter night) ; line of flight to S.W. 

Shore Lark, Otocorys alpestris (Linn.). — Oct. 17th to 26th, 
great many almost daily, and Nov. 8th and 9th (see Snow Bunt- 
ing). The only occurrence on the English coast is Oct. 26th, 
Yarmouth, two on North Denes. 

Starling, Stiinius vulgaris, Linn. — Spring migration in 1881 
observed at Dudgeon l.v. and Cromer l.h. from Feb. 25th to 
April 14th. In the autumn at nearly all our mid and south-east 
stations from August 30th to Dec. 11th. Heligoland, great rush 
Oct. 18th and 19th. On the English coast, during last fortnight 
in month, both night and day ; often associated with other 
migrants. Line of migration to W., S.W., N.W., W.N.W. At 
Teesmouth (Redcar), on Nov. 4th, an immense flock, estimated to 
contain a million, "making a noise like thunder and darkening 
the air," came from E. at 7 a.m. ; S.W. light, rainy to fair. Mr. 
John Odgers (Whitby l.h.) writes : — " We have had immense 
numbers of Starlings nesting in the cliffs up to this year ; none, 
however, nested in 1881." 

Daw, Corvus monedula, Linn. — Oct. 25th to Nov. 14th, occa- 
sionally with rooks at east-central stations. 

Hooded Crow, Corvus comix, Linn. — In the spring of 1881, at 
the Outer Dowsing on March 28th, 11 a.m., about one hundred 
from W.N.W. to S.E. ; and at the Dudgeon l.v., on April 8th, 
7 a.m., about sixty to east. Twenty were seen at Spurn on June 
26th, at 3 p.m., S.S.E., clear. In the autumn are recorded at 
nearly all our stations from the Inner Fame to the Godwin's. 
First at Teesmouth, Sept. 23rd, fourteen ; Sept. 30th, Suffolk 
coast, and for some days after. - Last at South Sand Head l.v. 
(Godwin), Dec. 12th. The great flight crossed Heligoland on the 
17th and 18th of October, E. clear, fine but fresh. Mr. Gutke 
remarks this migration " differed very markedly from usual habits 
in passing overhead, E. to W., at least twice as high as usual ; 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 



27 



further, \)j continuing passing on late hi the afternoon^ which 
accounts for your arrivals * during night or early morn,' which, 
however, I do not think has been later than' soon after nightfall. 
As a general rule C, comix, coming here later than 2 p.m., do 
not proceed on their migration, but remain on cliffs and island 
all night." There was a great arrival also on the English coast 
on the nights or early morning of Oct. 18th and 19th, at north, 
middle and south-east stations'. There was again a considerable 
flight across Heligoland on Nov. 8th and 9th, and again Dec. 
10th and 11th. Thirteen Carrion Crows were observed at the 
Inner Fame l.h. on Oct. 26th, and a large Kaven at Whitby l.h., 
10 a.m. on Aug. 26th. 

Rook, Corvus frugilegiis, Linn. — In spring of 1881, at Dudgeon 
L.V., March 7th, 10 a.m., flocks to E.S.E. At the Leman and 
Ower L.V., on April 12th, 13th, 14th, and 15th, continuous to 
S.E. In the autumn, at some mid and south-east stations, first 
at East Godwin l.v., SejDt. 9th, all day W. to E. ; last on Dec. 
23rd, Lynn Wells, all day S.E. to N.W. Great rush Oct. 17th 
and 18th ; also 25th to 27th same month. 

Common Swift, Ci/pselus apus (Linn.). — May 1st, Hunstanton 
L.H., one ; many on 7th. Were migrating south in large flocks 
last week in August and first in September. Seen last Sept. 
22nd, Spurn, 7 p.m., o.m. flocks round lantern. 

Nightjar, Caprimulgus europceus, Linn. — Spurn, May 25th, 
one ; are scarce in vernal migration at this station, common in 
the autumn. This last year from Sept. 3rd to Oct. 3rd. The few 
that turned up in Heligoland, Mr. Gatke says, during all this bad 
weather (Sept.), " were minus the conspicuous white patches on 
primaries and remiges." 

Green Woodpecker, Gecinus viridis (Linn.). — Cromer l.h., 
Sept. 25th, a bird, answering in every respect to this species, was 
seen for some hours near the lighthouse. 

Hoopoe, JJpupa epops, Linn. — Near Durham, Lincolnshire 
coast, and Spurn on Sept. 24th, 26th, and 29th. One, Nov. 10th, 
seen perched on telegraph wire near Whittlesea Station, Great 
Northern Railway. 

Cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, Linn. — Cromer l.h., April 29th, 
noon, several seen. Many (young birds) passed Spurn last fort- 
night in September. 

Barn Owl, Strix flammea, Linn. — Oct. 16th, one captured at 



28 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

sea on board one of the Grimsby fishing-smacks and brought in. 
See Zool. 1882, p. 86. 

Long-eared Owl, Asio otus (Linn.). — Spurn, two, last week in 
August. Eedcar, one, Oct. 2nd, E. 

Short-eared Owl, Asio accijntrinus (Pall). — April 12th and 
15th, one each day, past Dudgeon l.v. to W.S.W. One, Spurn, 
May 25th. In the autumn, at several stations from Teesmouth 
(Redcar) to Hasborough l.v., from Sept. 5th to Nov. 9th, line of 
flight from E. to W. or S.E. to N.W. At Eedcar numerous 
occurrences between Sept. 15th and Oct. 26th, with E. and N.E. 
winds. 

Snowy Owl, Nyctea scandiaca (Linn.). — Mr. T. H. Nelson 
writes : — " A great White Owl flew up the sands in front of Red- 
car, 10.30 a.m., Oct. 25th, past a group of fishermen and over 
the town, going S.W., wind E.N.E. strong." 

Tengmalm's Owl, Nyctala tengmalmi, (Gmel.). — Cromer l.h., 
Oct. 30th, 2 a.m., one caught against lantern ; Nov. 18th, one 
near Dartford, Kent. (' Field,' Nov. 26th). 

Common Buzzard, Buteo vulgaris, Leach. — Heligoland, Sept. 
22nd, an immense flight, thousands passing on, and as many 
resting on the cliffs, E. storm (No. 9) ; 23rd and 24th, still great 
many. Numerous from Sept. 24th to Oct. 18th between the 
Fame Islands and coast of Norfolk, the bulk coming in during 
the last w^eek in September. On Sept. 27th, coast of Suffolk, and 
passing at a great height to the south. 

^psLYi' o'whiiVs'li, A ccipiternis us (Linn.). — Heligoland, Sept. 22nd, 
Sparrowhawks and Kites. At the Coquet l.h.. Outer Dowsing, 
Corton and Cockle l.v.'s, the same day. A very considerable 
arrival was also noted at Nortlirepps, near Cromer, between the 
13th and 23rd of August. 

Kite, Milvus ictinus, Savigny. — Yarmouth, one last w^eek in 
September. 

Honey Buzzard, Pernis ajnvoiiis (Linn.). — Norfolk, Oct. 6th, 
nineteen Honey Buzzards, Mr. Gurney writes, up to this date. 

Peregrine Falcon, Falco pcreyrinus, Tunstall. — Heligoland, 
Sept. 22nd, Peregrines, Hobbies, and Kestrels many. Spurn, 
some of each in October. 

Common Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, Linn. — Many observed 
in coast districts of N.E. Lincolnshire in July, August, and 
September. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 29 

Osprey, Pandion haliaetus (Linn.). — There were no less than 
ten occurrences of this noble bird between the Tyne and Thames 
from the last week in September through October, namely, 
Durham, one ; Yorkshire, one ; Lincolnshire, three ; Norfolk, 
two ; Suffolk, one ; and near London, two ; several others being 
recorded from inland places in various parts of the kingdom. Of 
the Lincolnshire examples, two were birds of the year ; the other, 
shot Oct. 15th near some artificial trout ponds at Laceby, near 
Grimsby, was a magnificent adult female. One adult was 
obtained near Chester on Nov. 17th. It is very clearly shown in 
the returns that the great movement southward of the raptorial 
birds began on or about Sept. 21st, and was continued during 
the next fortnight. 

Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carho (Linn.). — Coquet l.h., Nov. 
26th, 2 p.m., twelve to north. 

Gannet, Sida hassana (Linn.). — May 2nd and 3rd, Inner Fame 
L.H., large flocks all day to N. During September large numbers 
passed Flamborough to the south. On Dec. 2nd, at the Gull l.v., 
twenty were seen going west into the Channel ; and on the 4th 
ten to the south. A great many were observed by fishermen at 
sea during the latter half of September and early part of 
October, fishing and " striking " near the boats amongst the 
herring shoals. 

Heron, Ardea cinerca, Linn. — August 31st, Inner Fame l.h., 
6 p.m., N.N.E., two coming in from sea. At Teesmouth (Eedcar) 
on August 3rd, nine at 11 a.m. to W., moderate west wind ; 
others in September. 

Little Bittern, Ardea minuta (Linn.). — One, a male, Sept. 23rd, 
was shot near Goole, Yorkshire. 

Glossy Ibis, Plegadis falcinellus (Linn.). — Four occurrences in 
September, namely, one killed near Lynn, and another seen ; 
one at Skegness, Lincolnshire, Sept. 9th, and another in Hamp- 
shire, Dogmerfield, Sept. 15th. One also was shot in Hertford- 
shire, Oct. 10th (' Field,' Nov. 26th), and another on 27th of the 
same month at Skegness. 

Wild Goose, Anser ? — At Flamborough, on July 8th, 7.30 p.m., 
about one hundred Grey Geese to N. At the South Sand Head 
L.V., Aug. 23rd, 6 to 8 a.m., continuous flocks to S.W., and again 
on Sept. 23rd, 10 a.m. to 2 p.m., continuous to S. Grey Geese 
were also noted in considerable numbers at several stations from 



30 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

the Tees to the South Foreland l.v., from the beginning of Sep- 
tember to the 8th of December, flying in various directions. 

Brent Goose, Bernicla hrenta (Pall.). — In March, 1881, many 
were observed off the 5 Buoy Tees l.v. At Gorton l.v., on June 
14th, fifty from W. to N.E., "passed close to vessel; am quite 
certain they were black geese." At the South Sand Head, on 
Sept. 5th, 6 to 8 a.m., flocks continuous to W. At Goquet l.h., 
Oct. 15th, one Egyptian Goose, 3 p.m., to N. 

Swan, Cygnus / — At Heligoland, on Oct. 23rd, S.E. blowing 
hard and very cold, Swans with Geese and Ducks passing. On 
Lynn Wells l.v., on Dec. 19th, twoatnoon,E.N.E.,toS.W. ; and on 
21st, at Inner Dowsing l.v., 3 p.m., fifteen flying low from E. to W. 

Sheldrake, Tadorna cornuta (Gmel.). — At 5 Buoy Tees l.v., 
Nov. 20th, twenty off light ; and on 29th, forty. 

Mallard, Anas hoschas, Linn. — 5 Buoy Tees l.v., March 26th, 
1881, Mallard with Wigeon and two Teal. In Sept. and Oct., 
large flocks at several stations. At the Teesmouth (Kedcar), on 
Aug. 17th, " a rush" of Ducks occurred between 6 a.m. and 
noon ; also on previous night, continuous to N.W., with Whimbrel 
and Curlew; the Ducks were in flocks of about 100 together. 
Again on Oct. 14th, the great storm from N.W., continuous 
flocks of Ducks passed from 7 a.m. to 9 p.m., going W. At the 
Swin Middle l.v., Aug. 22nd to 27th inclusive. Ducks all day to 
W. ; and again both Ducks and Wild Geese from Sejpt. 1st to 
12th, in large numbers each day, and all day to N.W. 

Blue-winged Teal, Querquedula discors, Steph. — One, a young 
bird, shot on Sept. 3rd near Redcar by Mr. W. Chilton. 

Wigeon, Mareca penelope (Linn.). — Large flocks off Tees- 
mouth in November and December. 

Scaup, Fidigula marila (Linn.). — 5 Buoy Tees l.v., Jan. 23rd, 
1881, *' Bell Wigeon" [Scaup] , great number to W.N.W. 

Long-tailed Duck, Harelda glacialis, (Linn.). — Inner Fame 
L.H., Oct. 20th and 22nd, several off island. 

Eider Duck, Somateria mollisima (Linn.). — On Sept. 24th, at 
Coquet Island l.v., twenty Eider Drakes and one female off 
island; and at Inner Fame l.v., in Oct., hundreds, both males 
and females, swimming under lee of islands. The King Eider, 
S. spectahilis (Linn.), was again seen during the latter part of 
April, and remained in neighbourhood for two months ; last seen 
on June 19th. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 31 

Common Scoter, (Eclemia nigra (Linn.). — At Coquet l.h., 
3rd, 9th, and 17th, all day to N. Corton l.v., Dec. 7th, 12th, 
and 13th, great numbers E. to W. during greater part of day. 
Large numbers seen at several stations off the coast in November. 

Goosander, Mergus merganser, Linn. — On Oct. 22nd, Tees- 
mouth (Eedcar), stormy E.S.E. gale, twelve were seen flying over 
East Scar, nine going W. and three E. 

Eed-breasted Merganser, Mergus serrator, Linn. — During 
November and December several seen off the Fame Islands and 
Teesmouth. 

King Dove, Columha palumhus, Linn. — One at Spurn l.h., 
against lantern, on Sep. 15th, 10 p.m. Immense flocks came 
into N.E. Lincolnshire in November. At Lynn Wells l.v., on 
Oct. 22nd, large flocks, 10 a.m., S.E. to N.W. ; and at Caistor 
Denes, Yarmouth, on Nov. 26th, very large flocks ; they are 
reported, on 28th, from Beccles (Norfolk) in such numbers as 
** to make the sky quite dark." 

Turtle Dove, Turtur communis, Selby. — One at Great Cotes, 
Sept. 15th, near rifle-butts on Humber Bank. 

Water Eail, Rallus aquaticus, Linn. — On Oct. 3rd, Inner 
Fame l.h. ; and another at Spurn, caught alive in yard of light- 
house on morning of Oct. 27th. 

Landrail, Crex pratensis, Bechst. — At Great Cotes, near 
Grimsby, Sept. 1st, N., half-a-gale ; and at Heligoland, on 9th, 
Mr. Gatke writes, ''very reddest I have ever had." At Yarmouth, 
Oct. 5th. 

Spotted Crake, Porzana maruetta (Leach). — Heligoland, Sept., 
one young bird. 

Golden Plover, Charadrmsjjluvialis, Linn. — First week in Sept., 
small flights in N.E. Lincolnshire. On the 6th, Mr. Wm. Eagle 
Clarke, writing from Spurn, says, " a long w^aved line extending 
at least three or four miles passed over, extending far over the 
Humber towards Lincolnshire coast, 5.15 p.m., wind changing 
from N. to S., direction of flight N." At the Fame Islands, 
during the month, hundreds of Golden Plovers and Lapwings 
coming off. to the islands in morning, and leaving for the land at 
night. At the same station, Nov. 5th, great numbers to W.S.W. 

Grey Plover, Squatarola helvetica (Linn.). — Humber foreshore, 
June 1st, one old male in summer plumage, and five less 
advanced; another, in the same flock, in winter plumage. At 



32 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Spurn, on June 13th, 4 p.m., N.E., clear, Grey Plovers were seen 
passing S. to N. In the autumn, in the first week in August, 
three old birds in breeding plumage on Humber muds ; also 
several old black-breasted birds seen at Spurn on 24tli. The 
young of the year arrived in large numbers last of August and 
first week of September. Seven shot near Spurn, on Sept. 12th, 
were two males and four females, and one lost ; all were in fine 
summer plumage ; were very numerous on Humber flats during 
September and October ; with the above exceptions, birds of the 
year or old having completed the autumn moult. 

Kentish Plover, JEgialitis cantiana (Lath.). — One, an im- 
mature example, was shot on the shore at Friskney, near 
Boston, on Oct. 8th ; subsequently came into the hands of Mr. 
A. S. Hutchinson, of Derby. 

Ringed Plover, JEgialitis hiaticula (Linn.). — May 27th, a 
flock numbering about twenty of the small race, ^gialitis inter- 
medins (Menetries), on Humber muds. 

Dotterel, Eudromias morinellus (Linn.). — May 14th to 21st, 
some *' trips " in N.E. Lincolnshire marshes, also at localities in 
Holderness ; twenty seen in one flock, thirty in another. 

Lapwing, Vanellus vulgaris, Bechst. — At the north-eastern 
stations, noticeably at Inner Fame l.h., Hunstanton l.h.. Inner 
Dowsing L.V., and Lynn Wells l.v., where very large numbers 
passed from Oct. 6th to Nov. 12th, general direction S.E. to 
N.W. At Teesmouth (Piedcar), Nov. 4th, an immense immi- 
gration between 8 a.m. and 3 p.m., passing westward, flocks 
numbering from 50 up to 500 birds, a flock coming in from sea- 
ward every ten minutes or thereabouts ; S.W., light, fine, and 
mild. 

Turnstone, Strepsilas intcrpres (Linn.). — May 25tli, many 
both mature and immature on coasts of N.E. Lincolnshire and 
Holderness. Teesmouth, in the autumn, not so plentiful as 
usual ; common in other localities. 

Oystercatcher, Hcematoims ostralegiis, Linn. — At Teesmouth 
(Piedcar), Aug. 18th, 6 a.m., three or four hundred, N.N.E., 
light, dull and showery. Hunstanton l.h., flocks S.W. at ebb, 
and E. at flood, throughout August. 

Eed-necked Phalarope, Pludaropus hyperhorens (Linn.). — One 
near Grimsby, Sei)t. 26th ; one Spurn and one Withernsea, Oct. 
9th ; two on Suffolk coast, same month {' Field,' Oct. 29th, 1881). 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 33 

Grey Phalarope, Phalaropiis fulicarias, Linn. — Teesmouth 
(Eedcar), Oct. 15th, two, in adult plumage, only a few grey 
feathers on back, N.N.W. gale ; one seen near Eedcar same day. 

Woodcock, Scolopax riisticula,Ijmn. — May 24th, Outer Dowsing 
L.V., one, 10.30 a.m., E.S.E. (4), passing from W. by N. to E.S.E. 
At numerous stations in the autumn [principally in the north 
and mid-east] , from Inner Fame l.h. to East Godwin l.v. First 
at Spm-n, on Sept. 4th; last at Heligoland, Nov. 30th, ''a few 
Woodcocks and Snipe" (first and only occurrence there in 1881). 
Greatest flight on English coast night of Oct. 28th, N.E., snow 
and sleet. Woodcocks have dropped in very irregularly through- 
out the autumn, by two's and three's during October, and not in 
those great rushes which usually characterise their immigration. 
Migrate generally during the night ; frequent exceptions to this 
rule. Casualties against the lanterns of lighthouses and light- 
vessels from midnight till daybreak. 

Double Snipe, Gallinago major (Gmel.). — One, Sept. 15th, 
was shot in a clover field about fifteen miles from Eedcar. One, 
Sept. 4th, at Spurn, killed against the telegraph-wire ; another, 
same locality, 16th ; one, Seaton Carew, Durham, 27th same 
month. 

Common Snipe, Gallinago ccBlestis (Frenzel). — Some few last 
week in July, main body last week of October to first week in 
November, rapidly passing on. Nov. 23rd, Gull l.v., 10.30 a.m., 
about 100 to. W. Spring migration, 1882, second week in 
March. 

Jack Snipe, Gallinago gallimda (Linn.). — The only occurrences 
recorded at Inner Fame l.h., from Sept. 23rd to Nov. 4th. 
Mouth of Deben, Suffolk, both this and the former are recorded 
from Sept. 30th to Oct. 1st, at full moon, with E. wind, in large 
quantities, continuing to arrive for some time ; remarkable by its 
entire absence from its ordinary winter quarters. 

Dunlin, Tringa alpina, Linn. — Spurn, May 25th, very large 
flocks, composed of birds some in summer plumage, others having 
no appearance of changing from ordinary winter garb. Enormous 
flocks were seen at some north-eastern stations in October. 
Great number at Teesmouth (Eedcar), from Sept. 15th to Oct. 
12th, all going W.N.W^., towards the Tees. 

Little Stint, Tringa minuta, Leisl. — In small flocks on 
Humber foreshores, from Sept. 2nd to as late as Oct. 8th. 

F 



34 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Fresh arrivals easily recognisable by their extreme tameness. 
Comparatively plentiful on coasts of Holderness, Lincolnshire, 
and Norfolk during the same period. 

Temminck's Stint, Tringa Temmincki, Leisl. — One early in 
September, near Yarmouth ; a few regularly occur at this season 
on the east coast, although rarely obtained, and probably also 
frequently overlooked. 

Pigmy Curlew, Tringa sitharquata (Giild.). — First at Spurn, 
July 21st, two in summer plumage. Flocks of young, thirty to 
fifty, numerous through September and October in the same 
districts as the Little Stint. 

Knot, Tringa canutus,Ijmn. — Spurn, June 7th, 6 p.m., "Plover- 
Knot " from N. to S. Some, birds of the previous year, and 
which do not acquire the summer dress, remain on the east 
coast duiing the summer. The first arrivals of young Knot 
occurred during the first week in August; great rush (young 
birds) first week in September, the old coming during the 
last week, in October. Mr. Winson, the captain of the Spurn 
life-boat, picked up a Knot on Nov. 7th, which was killed 
by flying against the telegraph-wu-e ; this bird was in faded 
summer plumage, the upper parts nearly black, with edgings of 
buft' on the margins of the feathers. 

Euff and Eeeve, Machetes pug nax (Linn.). — On Sept. 3rd, two 
shot from a flock of nine on Cowpen Marsh, near Eedcar, N.E., 
stormy. One Euff and two Eeeves were also obtained at Spm-n 
early in September. 

Sanderling, Calidris arenaria (Linn.). — May 25th, some at 
Spurn, young of previous year, and in immature plumage. Aug. 
1st, flock of nine ; and henceforward in large numbers during 
August and September, many remaining on the coast till end of 
the year, and into 1882. At Teesmouth (Eedcar) they are 
reported scarcer this season than they have been for many 
years. 

Common Sandpiper, Totanus hypolencus (Linn.). — May 14th 
to 20th, North-east Lincolnshire, flocks passing along the coast 
northward, returning first week in September. 

Green Sandpiper, Totanus ochropus (Linn.). — July 30th, 
returning. 

Wood Sandpiper, Totanus glareola (Linn.). — Aug. 6th, one 
shot near Eedcar ; small flock seen. 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 35 

Common Eedshank, Totanus calidris (Linn.). — Scarce near 
Teesmouth in the autumn. At Spurn, July 31st, many. 

Spotted Eedshank, Totanus fuscus (Linn.). — Teesmouth, 
about Sept.. 15th; one, a fully-matured bird, obtained. 

Greenshank, Totanus canescens (Gmel.). — Comparatively 
numerous in Humber district in September and October, more 
than have been seen for many years. 

Bar-tailed Godwit, Limosa lapponica (Linn.). — Passed the 
Tees in considerable numbers first week in September. Yery 
common in Humber district in September and October. At 
Eedcar (Teesmouth), between July 4th and 7th, about thirty 
passed each morning to W. On Sept. 22nd, a slight " rush " ; 
several large flocks with Knots, both in morning and afternoon, 
going W. ; E. gale, stormy, with heavy rain. 

Whimbrel, Numenius phcEopus (Linn.). — At Spurn, May 25th, 
three seen. Teesmouth (Eedcar), July 4th to 7th, each day a few 
seen in morning, S.W., fine. Aug. 17th, continuous flocks with 
Curlews and Godwits from 6 to 9 a.m., and also the preceding 
night, W., calm ; and at intervals to Sept. 23rd, all flying W. or 
N.W. Last occurrence Oct. 22nd. 5 Buoy Tees l.v., at 11 a.m., 
twenty to S.W. 

Curlew, Numenius arqziata (Linn.). — On May 1st and 18th, at 
Inner Fame and Flamborough, round lanterns during night. 
At various localities in the autumn, from July 17th to end of 
September. Great rush, with Whimbrels and Godwits, on Aug. 
17th. 

Terns, Sternin^. — At the Fame Islands, in 1881, the Sand- 
wich Terns returned on May 6th, the Arctic Terns on the 9th ; 
they left again in a body, both old and young, on Aug. 21st. 
From Sept. 2nd to 5th, hundreds of both species revisited and 
settled upon their breeding grounds. After this, from Sept. 16th 
to the end of the month, two to three hundred Arctic Terns, both 
old and young, were observed daily fishing near island (Inner 
Fame l.h.), leaving again at night. Three Arctic Terns, two 
old and one young, were seen fishing off island on Oct. 27th, 
and on 29th a single young bird. A flock of about thirty Com- 
mon Terns were to be seen in front of Eedcar daily up to Oct. 
14th, when the great storm evidently drove them south. Both 
at Eedcar and Flamborough, throughout September, great 
numbers of Terns were noticed passing south. At Spurn, in 



36 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

May, 1881, small parties of Black Terns were passing north, a 
few returning southward by the same route in August. The 
Lesser Terns returned to their nesting quarters at Spurn in the 
third week in May. At Coquet Island l.h., on the night of Aug. 
22nd, fog. Terns with Curlews were all night beating about the 
lantern. In 1882, March 29th, Spurn, two Terns [sp. ?] seen 
passing north. 

Gulls, Larin/^. — The Herring Gulls returned to their breeding 
stations at Whitby on Feb. 14tli ; they left the cliffs with their 
young on Aug. 26th. Lesser Black-backed Gulls were observed 
congregating at their nesting quarters, on the Fame Islands, on 
April 13th. At Flamborough, on July 4th, great numbers of 
Kittiwakes were passing to the south all day. Unusual numbers 
of Herring Gulls and Little Gulls (L. minutus, Pall.) were seen 
off Flamborough in September. At Spurn, on Oct. 26th, two 
Little Gulls were seen ; and about the 22nd two immature 
Sabine's Gull, Xema Sahinii, procured on the Norfolk coast, 
some Little Gulls being seen at the same time. At Teesmouth 
(Redcar), on Sept. 22nd, continuous flocks of Herring and Lesser 
Black-backed Gulls, young birds, passed from daylight to dusk, 
all going N.W., strong E. gale, rain. On Oct. 23rd, and for 
several days previous. Great Black-backed Gulls had been 
passing to N.W., forty to one hundred in the course of a day, 
E.S.E. winds, all mature birds. It is many years since so large 
a number of Great Black-backs had been seen passing. At the 
Cockle L.V., on Nov. 11th, continuous flocks of Gulls were passing 
westward all day; and on Dec. 29th, at Lynn Wells l.v., flocks 
all day from E. to W. 

Skuas, Stercorariin^e. — On July 12th, a flock of one hundred 
(probably S. crepidatus) passed at 8.30 p.m. to N.W., high over 
Redcar, wind W. On Sept. 16th a gyeat many Skuas were seen 
on the fishing grounds, five to six miles out, Richardson's, 
Pomatorhine, and Buffon's busily engaged chasing the Gulls and 
Terns; and again on Sept. 29th, a great many Richardson's, 
Pomatorhine, and a few Buffon's Skuas seen from four to twelve 
miles at sea by fishermen similarly employed. On Oct. 14th, 
during the gale from N.N.W., great numbers of Pomatorhine 
came down from north, passing Redcar and going off inland, 
mostly flying high. The same day a large mixed flock of 
Pomatorhine and Buffon's Skua was seen near the Breakwater, 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 37 

crouching on the ground to get shelter from the tempest of wind 
and rain. Great numbers of Skuas passed Flamborough in 
September ; on Oct. 4th, four Richardson's Skuas were seen off 
Yarmouth ; and on Nov. 23rd, at Southsand Head l.v., great 
numbers ("Bonxie's and chasers") with Gannets. 

Petrels, Procellariid^ . — During the gale on Oct. 14th, several 
Storm Petrels seen coming past Redcar from the north ; they 
also occurred from Aug. 10th to Nov. 20th at several stations, 
not unfrequently striking the lanterns of lighthouses and light- 
vessels on clear as well as on foggy nights. The Fork-tailed 
Petrel {P. leucorrhoa) occurred at various stations, both on the 
coast and inland, between Oct. 24th and Nov. 28th, one at 
Heligoland, in December, being only the second obtained during 
Mr. Gatke's long residence in the island. It is probable that 
this, being a west coast species, is driven in the autumn by heavy 
gales right across the island on to our east coast — that is, from 
N.W. to S.E.; its rarity at Heligoland in the autumn supports 
this view of the line taken by stragglers occurring inland, 
and on our east coast after heavy N. and S.W. gales. Puffinus 
anglorum and P. major passed Flamborough, in September, in 
considerable numbers. 

Alcidje. — At Flamborough, on April 28th, great numbers of 
Guillemots arrived dming the day ; and on the 29th the Puffins 
retm^ned for the season. At the Fame Islands a white Guillemot 
was seen in June and July. The Guillemots and Puffins left 
their breeding stations between Aug. 20th and 28th. At Whitby, 
on Aug. 17th and 21st, very large flocks of Guillemots were seen 
passing north. 

CoLYMBiD^. — From Aug. 13th to Nov. 8th, at intervals, many 
Great Northern and Eed-throated Divers seen off Eedcar. At 
the Inner Fame l.h., from Oct. 5th to 17th, both species 
common ; two of the former, shot Dec. 8th and 10th, off the 
Inner Fame Island, weighed 12 and 32J pounds. 

PoDiciPiTiD^. — At the Inner Fame l.h., in February, 1881, 
an unusual number of Grebes and small Divers were observed. 

General Remarks. 
The results of the observations taken along the East Coast of 
England in the spring and autumn of 1881 have been satis- 
factory ; it is true that, as already mentioned, the returns sent in 



38 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

have been less than in the previous year, yet what has been lost 
in quantity has more than been made up in the quality of the 
work. The observers have become trained by experience, and 
have learnt not only how to observe, but what to observe. 

As in previous years, the main line of migration has been a 
broad stream from E. to W. or from S.E. to N.W. this year, 
covering the whole of our east coast in comparatively equal 
proportions ; the occurrences of migrants coming from northerly 
directions, or from points anything north of east, are few and 
far between, and in these cases are consequent on birds striking 
the coast in more northern latitudes and following it to the 
south. Thus, north of Flamborough, Larks pass up the coast 
from north to south ; at Spurn and south of Spurn they come in 
dii-ectly from the sea. The closeness with which both migrants 
and immigrants follow the coast line has also been verified in a 
remarkable degree, — an observer taking up his position at a short 
distance from the coast would see or know nothing of migration, 
yet within half-a-mile or less there might be a constant stream 
of birds, hour by hour and day by day passing to the south. 

In the spring birds also return on the same lines they travelled 
in the autumn, from W. and N.W. to E. and S.E. A reference 
to the spring notes in the report on each separate species observed 
will show this. Our spring immigrants also arrive from the sea, 
and are first seen on or near the coast, gradually moving inland. 
Migration has been earlier than in 1880, in many cases birds 
arriving considerably in advance of recent years ; this has been 
notably the case with some of the Limicolce, such as have the 
widest ranges and where nesting grounds are circumpolar — that 
is, confined to lands surrounding the North Pole. Also in the 
case of the Anatidce, which arrived fully a month before their 
average period. 

It may be said the general features of migration, having 
reference to lines of flight, time, height of travelling, favourable 
winds or otherwise, circumstances of greatest casualties at lanterns 
of lighthouses and light-vessels, -are the same as set forth in 
previous reports; yet in 1881 we find several important variations 
from the normal phenomenon, consequent on the directions of the 
wind and general character of the season. From the commence- 
ment of August to the end of October the prevailing winds have 
been from northerly and easterly directions, blowing more or less 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 39 

directly on to the coast, and therefore, as also shown in previous 
reports, unfavourable passage winds — for it may be laid down as 
an axiom that, with southerly or westerly winds, not amounting 
to gales, normal migration is the rule, but with winds in the 
opposite direction, the results are very opposite ; such winds, 
more especially if strong, weary out the immigrants and compel 
them to drop on the first coast they make, often completely 
exhausted by the passage. The consequence has been that, on 
our east coast, with the prevailing winds, it has been a most 
favourable season for the observer ; and generally the number of 
birds recorded is considerably in excess of any previous records. 

The winter of 1881-82 has been remarkable for its high 
temperature, no such uniformly mild season having occurred for 
many years in England. The same has been the case over the 
whole of Northern Europe north of latitude 50° N. As might be 
expected, so exceptional a season has not been without its effect 
upon our immigrants. Fieldfares have crossed in very limited 
numbers, and have everywhere been remarkably scarce in 
localities along our east coast. Large numbers of birds which 
regularly arrive in the autumn, as the Greenfinch, Chaffinch, 
Tree Sparrow, Snow Bunting, and others, and which remain for 
a few days only and then pass on, have this winter continued for 
many weeks, and even months, resorting in immense flocks to 
the stubble-fields near the coast, where, with no severe weather 
to drive them away, they found an inexhaustible supply of food 
in the large quantity of grain dashed out in harvest-time by the 
great gale from S.W. to W. on August 26th. Snow Buntings 
have been considerably in excess of anything known for many 
years, the proportion of old birds not more than one in a 
hundred. 

Another consequence of the mildness of the winter is the 
desultory fashion in which birds have migrated; there have been 
less of those great ''rushes," when for days together one species 
after another rush helter-skelter on to our coast. Migration has also 
been greatly prolonged, and the latest returns received show Books, 
Starlings, and Larks still crossing the North Sea in February. 
The last week in August and first in September Wheatears and 
Eedstarts passed as usual up the coast from N. to S., the line of 
migration being confined to the chain of sandhills. Also during 
the firstweek of September, and again about the 20th, there was 



40 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

an immense migration of the Sylviince in the same direction. 
Migration appears to have reached its climax on or about 
Sept. 22nd, an enormous number of various immigrants coming 
in from this time to the end of the month. Not the least 
remarkable was the influx of the larger raptorial birds crossing 
Heligoland on Sept. 22nd and two following days, and were 
about the same period seen along the entire range of our eastern 
coast. From this date to the end of October ten Ospreys were 
procured from localities contiguous to the east coast of England, 
between the Tyne and the Thames. Again, the third week of 
October there was another large immigration of birds of various 
species. On the night of Oct. 24th great numbers of Mealy 
Redpoles came in on the Holderness coast ; the same flight was 
also traceable as far north as the Fame Islands; the Mealy 
Eedpoles appear to have been accompanied or closely followed 
by a flight of Siskins. Hooded Crows came with their usual 
regularity, almost to a day; this autumn the great flight crossed 
Heligoland on the afternoon of Oct. 17th, and on the 18th. 
There was a corresponding arrival along the whole of our east 
coast on the night of 17th or early morning of 18th, and on 
the 19th. 

Short-eared Owls, Golden Crested Wrens, and Woodcocks 
arrive with great punctuality during the first fortnight in October, 
and are invariably associated in their migration — that is, coming 
at the same time ; it is a curious fact that, in the last autumn, 
all three arrived in conjunction five weeks in advance of their 
average period ; this perhaps may have been a local and coast 
movement from North Britain' and not across the North Sea. 

In August and early in September, Knots, Grey Plovers, 
Sanderlings, Curlew Sandpipers, and Little Stints — all circum- 
polar in their nesting — had returned in large number, being 
unusually abundant and early in their movements up the 
coast. 

The Anatidce have been remarkably scarce in shore and 
within our river estuaries, and. it has been an almost blank 
season for the wildfowl-shooter ; yet we find, in the returns from 
some light-vessels, they have occurred in extraordinary numbers 
out at sea, the weather having never been sufficiently severe to 
drive them inland or near the coast. 

With a dry hot summer in Northern Europe migration is 



EAST COAST OF ENGLAND. 41 

always earlier than in years of rain and low temperature, birds 
breeding sooner in the former, and the nestlings, like all other 
young things, with dry weather and sunshine, developing more 
rapidly. 

Nothing is more remarkable in the phenomenon of migration 
than the punctuality with which certain species return in the 
autumn, one species regularly taking precedence of another; 
also in respect to the date of the arrival year after year. In the 
LimicolcB and Anatidce the date of autumn migration varies — 
often considerably — from year to year. In some species, as the 
Wheatear, Eedstart, Fieldfare, Kedwing, Hooded Crow, Goldcrest 
and Woodcock, and others, we may almost predict to a day the 
time of their first appearance. 

The period of the migratory flight in the autumn of any 
particular genus or species is most probably referable to two 
causes : the first one of temperature, affecting the time of 
nesting ; the second is the period at which the young arrive at 
maturity, or rather that period when they throw off paternal 
control or are thrown off' themselves. When able to act in- 
dependently and procm'e food on their own account, they flock 
together and migrate in a body. We know that, with rare 
exceptions, the young of the year migrate some weeks in advance 
of the parent birds ; thus we can readily conceive the whole of 
the large raptorial birds nesting about the same time over 
widely extending districts in Northern Europe ; when the many 
young arrive at a self-dependent stage there would be a 
simultaneous movement, ending in a universal migratory rush. 
This period of self-dependence is arrived at much more quickly 
in some birds than in others, for species like the Knot, Grey 
Plover, Godwit, and Sanderling, nesting in very high latitudes, 
leave our shores the last in the spring of any of the migrants, 
and their young are amongst the first to return in autumn. 
The order of migration, more especially in coxmection with the 
shore birds, is the occurrence very early in autumn — July or 
August — of a few old birds in summer plumage, either barren or 
such perhaps as have been prevented nesting, then the young in 
large flocks, and some weeks subsequently old birds. 

The season of 1881 - 82 will long be remembered by east 
coast ornithologists for the number of rare visitants which have 
appeared from time to time, driven to westward of their ordinary 

G 



4ti REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

migration lines by the prevailing winds from N. and N.E. to 
E. and S.E., generally strong and frequently increasing to a 
severe gale. The fact of ten Ospreys having been seen or 
procured has already been mentioned ; there were two occur- 
rences of Tengmalm's Owl ; the Rustic Bunting at Spurn ; Lapp 
Bimting at Tetney, on Lincolnshire coast ; White-spotted Blue- 
throat at Cley, in Norfolk ; Glossy Ibis, five occurrences ; 
Sabine's Gull, two on Norfolk coast ; Kentish Plover, Lincoln- 
shire ; Blue-winged Teal, Teesmouth ; and numerous other 
occurrences of scarcely secondary interest. These, as well as 
the rarer occurrences in Heligoland, have been separately treated 
in the notes on each species observed. 



43 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 



Schedules, &c., were sent to thirty-eight stations, the same 
number as in 1880. We have received filled-in schedules from 
twenty-six stations, being same as last year. 

Generally the returns are light, and the scarcity of birds is 
accounted for by the reporters, and borne out by comparison of 
statistics, by the prevalence of westerly gales and winds (see 
General Kemarks). The schedules show the same careful work 
as in former years. 

The dates upon which the various stations have sent us 
returns are shown in the following list of the stations by the 
positions of the asterisks preceding the consecutive numbers. 
Stations added have the dates preceding the names. As will be 
seen, the work done will compare favourably with the East Coast 
returns, and also with that of previous seasons. 

West Coast of Scotland. 

Mainland. 

1879, '80, '81. 

* * =!< 81. Cape Wrath, Sutherland 400 ft. D. Sinclair. 

* * * 82. EhuStoir,W. Cromarty... 195 „ W. Wither. 



Outer Hebrides. 
* 83. Butt of Lewis 



- 84. Stomoway 
* 85. Island Glass 



* * 86. Monach Island 

* "^ 87. Ushenish ... 

88. Barra Head 



-_^ fG. Edgar and 

^'"" (Alex. Thompson. 

56 ,, John Grierson. 

130,, W. Innes. 

no "[j. Youngclause. 

176 ,, Peter Carrie. 
683 „ 



Mainland, Skye, and Inner Hebrides. 

89. Bona, Skye 222 „ 

* 90. Kyleakin, Eosshire 63 „ D. MacCulloch. 

'^ 91. Isle Ornsay, Skye 58 ,, J. Loughton. 



44 



REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



1879, '80, '81. 

* * 92. 

jj ^; * J y^' 

194. 

5|C * ^: 1)5^ 

- * =;= 96. 

97. 

* * 98. 

- =.•< 99. 

- - - 100. 
^ * 101. 

- * * 102. 

- - ^:^ 103. 

* - 104. 

105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 

* 109. 

* * 110. 

- :;. =:= 111. 

- := - 112. 

- - * 113. 

- - - 114. 

* 115. 

- ♦ =!^ IIG. 
'^= >;: 117, 

118. 

H: t^ 119, 

120. 



Ardnamurclian, Pt. Argyle 180 ft. 
Hyiiish Signal Tower, Tiree \ -i rn 



145 

55 

38 
103 

42 
147 
128 

73 
159 

50 
297 
165 
120 
130 

46 

96 
112 

46 
•37 



Skerry vore, off Tiree 

Dliulieartacli, S.W. of Ross 
of Mull 

Sound of Mull 

Conan Ferry, Loch Eil ... 
Lismore Island, Oban 

Fladda, Easdale 

Rlmvaal, Islay 

Mac Arthur's Head, Islay 

Skervuile, Jura 

Rhinns of Islay 

Lochindaul, Islay 

Mull of Kintyre 

Sanda, Kintyre Sound ... 

Devaar, Kintyre 

Pladda, Arran 

Lamlash, Arran 

Turnberry, Ayrshire 
Corse wall, Wigtown 
Loch Ryan, Wigtow^n 
Portpatrick, Wigtown 
Mull of Galloway, Wigtown 325 
Little Ross, Kirkcudbright 175 
Point of Ayre, I. of Man 106 
Douglas Head, I. of Man 104 
Chickens Rock, I. of Man 122 

1880, Bahama Bank, Isle of 
Man (l.v.) .. 

1880, Langness do. 



W. Crow. 



J. Ewing. 
W. Maclellan. 

Alex. Murray. 

David Spink. 
W, Main. 
John Ewing. 
Andrew LyalL 



David Waters. 
Andrew Nisbet. 
Robert Laidlaw. 
Ralph Ewing. 
James Beggs. 
N. Morrison. 
W. A. Mackay. 
James Blytlie. 
A. Irvine Grant. 



Charles Johns. 



It will be seen upon comparing this last with the previons 
years of 1879 and 1880 that steady interest in the work is being 
kept up by our West Coast reporters. 

TuRDiDiE. — Song Thrush. Spring : Only one record at Storno- 
way, where a pair arrived on March 3rd and stayed till 18th. — 
Autumn : Piecords at Kyleakin, Dhuheartach, Lismore, and 
Bahama l.v. Earliest Oct. 5th, at Lismore (a flock all night) ; 
latest on Dec. 13th, at Lismore also (mixed with Blackbirds), and 
a single bird on Jan. 16th at Bahama l.v. Participated to a 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 45 

small extent in a rush of migrants generally Sept. 21st to 23rd, 
which appeared on both coasts of Scotland. Indications of a 
small rush Oct. 25th to 27th also. Other records scattered 
through September, October, November, and December. Black- 
bird. No spring records. Autumn : At Monach, Sound of 
Mull, Lismore, Skervuile, Turnberry, Mull of Galloway, Little 
Koss, Douglas Head. Earliest Sept. 21st, at Mull of Gallo- 
way (date of rush also on East Coast q.v.) ; latest Dec. 20th, 
at Turnberry (one struck). Eushes : None very apparent, 
but, taking dates of other species, appear to have mingled 
with them on September 21st to 23rd at Sound of Mull and Mull 
of Galloway (which is also date of general rush on the east 
coast). Also faint indications of rushes at Lismore on Oct. 5th, 
mingled with Thrushes ; and on Dec. 13th to 19th at several 
stations, as Lismore, Skervuile, and Turnberry. A good many 
scattered records also at other dates and several stations. 
Exceptionally numerous were Song Thrushes and Missel Thrushes 
near Dumfries in October and November, whilst Kedwings and 
Fieldfares were very seldom seen. 

Saxicolin^.. — Wheatear. Spring records only from Butt 
of Lewis, Khuvaal, and Skerry vore ; March 9th (a flock), April 
1st (at Khuvaal), and May 6th (at Skerry vore). Autumn : At 
Skerryvore, Dhuheartach, Lamlash, Turnberry, Corsewall. 
Earliest Aug. 14th at Skerryvore (two seen) ; latest Oct. 27th, 
when one seen along with Sparrows and Wrens in garden. 
Eushes on Aug. 7th at Skerryvore and Dhuheartach (150 at 
former and numbers at latter). Another appears also at Skerry- 
vore on Sept. 7th during the night. Desultory migration going 
on between these dates and till Oct. 27th. 

Sylviin^. — Eobin. Only one spring record, April 9th, at 
Skerryvore. Autumn : At Ehu Stoir,* Kyleakin, Isle Ornsay, 
Lismore, Skervuile, Lamlash, Corsewall, Portpatrick, Little Eoss. 
Earliest Aug. 17th, at Skervuile ; next earliest Aug. 21st, when 
a pair, male and female, arrived at Little Eoss ; latest on Dec. 
18th, at Kyleakin. Participated slightly in rush of migrants on 
Sept. 22nd. No other distinctly perceptible, but scattered occur- 
rences only recorded. One accompanied Hedgesparrows and 



* Where one bird comes every winter and becomes so tame as to eat out 
of the hand. It arrived this year on Nov. 30th. 



46 



REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



Wrens. One Chat and one Wagtail in Garden of Lamlash on 
Oct. 27th. Mr. Service notes the "quick and simultaneous 
departure of the Silviidce " towards the end of September in 
the S.W. of Scotland. It is curious to find that about 
the same time that birds were pouring into Scotland and 
England others were starting on their departure. In ordinary 
seasons the departure of the Sylvnnce is gradual all through 
September. 

Phylloscopin^.. — Gold Crest. No Spring records. Autumn : 
At Skervuile, Lamlash. Turnberry, Corsewall, Mull of Galloway, 
Little Ross, and Douglas Head ; in other words, mostly in south- 
west of Scotland. Earliest on Aug. 21st, at Douglas Head, the 
southernmost on this list (see W.C. of England stations) ; latest 
Oct. 27th, at Corsewall. No great rush, unless at Mull of Gallo- 
way on Oct. 24th, when " numbers flew about lantern all night," 
and at Little Eoss '* for a few nights " between Sept. 12th and 
14th or 15th. Desultory at other dates between times. Mostly 
observed at lanterns in easterly breezes. Exception at Mull of 
Galloway on September 21st in S.W. wind, but after twent^^-four 
hom's E.S.E. (see Isle of May, East Coast of Scotland). 

AccENTORiD.E. — HcdgespaiTOw. In spring none, but in 
autumn, at Rhuvaal, Lamlash, and Point of Ayi*e, numbers are 
reported as seen on migration. Earliest Sept. 5th, when a 
hundred were seen at Point of Ayre ; latest Oct. 27th, when a 
number were seen at Lamlash. A still later date is Jan. 1st, 
1882, when one was seen at Rhuvaal. Rushes appear to have 
occurred at Point of Ayre on Sept. 5th and 22nd, and a few 
on Oct. 7th mingled with Linnets, and at Lamlash on Oct. 27th. 

Parid^. — " Titmice." One record in spring at Mull of Gallo- 
way on April 14th in E.S.E. wind. Autumn : Twice recorded only 
at Corsewall, and at Little Ross. Earliest July 29th (three), and 
latest Aug. 2nd, at Little Ross and Corsewall respectively, being 
slight indication perhaps of a rush on these dates. 

Troglodytid^. — Common Wren. No spring records. Au- 
tumn : Pretty general at Skerryvore, Dhuheartach, Lismore, 
Lamlash, Turnberry, and Little Ross. Earliest Sept. 16th (one, 
resting) ; latest Oct. 27th, at Lamlash. Rushes on Oct. 5th ; a 
large flock ** seen along with Blackbirds and Thrushes all night," 
and on Oct. 27th a number at Lamlash along with Hedgesjmrrows, 
a Robin, a Wagtail, and a Wheatear, 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 47 

MoTAciLLiDJE. — Wagtail. In spring, several in March, and two 
on April 20th at Butt of Lewis. Autumn : At Butt of Lewis, 
Monach, Kyleakin, Skerryvore, Dhuheartach, Lamlash, Port- 
patrick, and Point of Ayre. Earliest Aug. 16th, at Skerryvore 
(one seen) ; latest Oct. 27th, at Lamlash (see Wren under date 
and station). Eushes beginning of September, at Lamlash, and 
other isolated records; same date at Monach, &c. Also *' a num- 
ber " on Oct. 7th at Portpatrick. 

Anthid/E. — Pipits. At Dhuheartach and Little Boss in 
autumn. Single record on Oct. 28th, at Dhuheartach. A rush of 
*' hundreds " at Little Boss on Sept. 6th. Bemained about two 
hours. 

HiEUNDiNiD^. — Swallow. Spring : At Butt of Lewis, Monach, 
Ushenish, Kyleakin, Skerryvore, Lismore, Bhuvaal, Skervuile, 
McArthur's Head, Bhinns of Islay, Loch Byan, Little Boss, 
Point of Ayr, Douglas Head. Earliest April 24th, at Douglas 
Head (southernmost station in this list) ; latest June 15th, at 
Skerryvore. Bushes May 5th, at McArthur's Head (great num- 
bers), and on May 2nd fifty seen at Loch Byan (possibly the 
same birds ? — J. A. H. B.) A number seen also at Little Boss 
on May 2nd. At other dates and stations small parties reported, 
all during May, and to June 15th often mixed with Martins. 
Autumn : At Skervuile, Lamlash, Turnberry, Loch Byan, Mull 
of Galloway, Little Boss, Point of Ayr, Douglas Head, and 
Bahama Bank. Earliest at Bahama Bank (l.v.) July 5th ; and 
next at Loch Byan Aug. 5th and 6th ; latest Oct. 6th, at Little 
Boss. An almost continuous rush going on from Aug. 15th at 
several stations in S.W. of Scotland, and culminating on Sept. 
8th in great rush at Little Boss, and less so at Loch Byan and 
Point of Ayr. No more records after Oct. 6th. Martin. 
Generally mixed with the last on migration both in spring 
and autumn. Stations at Ushenish and Loch Byan in spring, 
on May 8th and 2nd respectively, and in autumn at Mull of 
Galloway on Sept. 28th. 

Fkingillid^e. — "Linnets," One on May 2nd at Skerryvore. 
Autumn : At Bhu Stoir, Monach, Skerryvore, Sound of Mull, 
Lismore, Point of Ayr. Earliest Aug. 23rd (a flock) at Lismore ; 
latest Dec. 22nd. Other dates, Oct. 26th (a flock), at" Lismore. 
Bushes on Sept. 14th at Little Boss, and a smaller number on 
19th at Sound of Mull. It is difficult to say if "Linnets" are 



48 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

always real Grey Linnets, or Twites, or Mountain Linnets, our 
reporters not distinguishing them. House Sparrows. About 
two hundi-ed, '* supposed to be of this species," rested all night 
at Point of Ayr on Sept. 16th. Bramblings are reported in 
considerable numbers from land stations in S.W. of Scotland in 
beginning of November. 

Emberizid^. — Snow Bunting. Autumn : At Ehu Stoir, 
Monach ; also Kyleakin, Dhuheartach, and Point of Ayr. Earliest 
at Ehu Stoir, on Oct. 1st, ''arrive and stay all winter" ; latest 
on Nov. 15th, at Monach (a few). No rush perceptible. Yellow 
Bunting. Autumn : One record at Ehu Stoir on Nov. 30th. 
Snow Buntings reported abundant by middle of October in 
S.W. of Scotland. 

Alaudid^. — Lark. Autumn at Skerry vore, Dhuheartach, 
Lismore, Ehuvaal, Skervuile, Turnberry, Little Eoss. Earliest 
on Aug. 23rd (a few with Linnets) on Lismore ; latest on Feb. 
16th, 1882, on Skervuile. Eushes : Sept. 6th, five hundred at 
Dhuheartach.* A straggling migration during October, some- 
times with Thrushes, Blackbirds, as on 26th at Skervuile, or 
Starlings, as at same place and at Lismore. Few in December, 
January, and February, except *'a large flock" on Jan. 16th at 
Lismore. 

Sturnin^. — Starling. Two records in spring at Ehu Stoir 
and Stornoway, one March 3rd, and the other May 10th. 
Autumn : At Ehu Stoir, Stornoway, Ushenish, Kyleakin, Dhu- 
heai-tach, Lismore, Ehuvaal, Skervuile, Lamlash, Corsewall, 
Portpatrick. Earliest Aug. 23rd, at Corsewall ; latest on Jan. 
6th, 1882. Eushes inappreciable, but records numerous ; if any, 
perhaps one on Nov. 10th at Mull of Galloway. Occasionally 
mixing with Blackbirds and Larks (as on Oct. 2nd at Lismore) ; 
also with Thrushes. 

CoRviDiE. — Eook. Spring migration : Uncertain records 
applied to " Crows," '* All kinds," &c., which notes are not exact 
enough. Autumn : At Ehu Stoir, Dhuheartach, Skervuile, and 
Portpatrick. Earliest Sept. 9th ; latest Nov. 25th, at Skervuile. 
Flocks seen, but no perceptible rush. 

'i' Called in schedules "Shore Larks"? In what respect do "Shore 
Larks" difier Iroui common Larks ^ (Query to Mr. James Ewiug at Dhu- 
heartach}. 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 49 

Hooded Crow. Spring : March 4th, at Ehuvaal ; Dhu- 
heartach, June 7th. Autumn : Sept. 12th, at Ehu Stoir (two 
males and two females). Latest Dec. 22nd, at Monach. A 
rush of "Black Crows" (which may be Carrion or only Books) 
at Lamlash on Oct. 26th and 27th. Baven. One record at 
Monach, flying N.W. on Sept. 13th. 

CucuLiD^. — Cuckoo. Spring : General at stations. At Loch 
Eyan, May 3rd (two heard) ; Bhinns of Islay, 15th ; Sker- 
vuile, 4th ; McArthur's Head, 23rd ; Lismore, 10th ; Isle Ornsay, 
Skye, 8th : Kyleakin, 3rd ; Island Glass, 24th (seen) ; Stornoway, 
9th. In autumn, heard in July often at Stornoway ; left about 
Aug. 1st at Isle Ornsay. 

Stkigid^. — "Owl." Only one autumn record at Kyleakin, 
when one was seen flying south on Nov. 4th, wind S.E. clear. 

Falconid^. — " Hawks." At Skerryvore, and Bhuvaal two 
"large Hawks " on Feb. 8th (this may belong to latest autumn 
record). One at Skerryvore on May 15th. Autumn : At Monach, 
Skerryvore, Dhuheartach, and Little Boss.* Earliest Sept. 17th 
("Hawk"), at Dhuheartach; latest Oct. 29th, at Skerryvore 
{'' Small Brown Hawk.") Bush daily about Sept. 17th at Dhu- 
heartach, but likely the same birds. "Daily call" at Dhu- 
heartach about Oct. 5th. No really appreciable rush as on the 
east coast. 

Pelicanid^. — Gannet. N.B. As we have indications of direc- 
tions of flight in most cases, and as records occur in every 
month, except October, November, and December, I take spring 
and autumn together, and trace out the movements of Gannets 
with extra care. Stations reported from : Cape Wrath, Bhu 
Stoir, Butt of Lewis, Island Glass, Monach, Skerryvore, Lismore, 
Ehuvaal, Skervuile, Portpatrick, Mull of Galloway, Little Boss, 
Douglas Head. Earliest, Jan. 2nd ; flying south (autumn ?), at 
Skervuile ; one same day, flying north (?) ; latest, October ; leave 
Cape Wrath in first week. Last minute record, Sept. 30th, at 
Lismore, flying south. The greatest movements or rushes as 



* The names given are " Hawk," " Game Hawk " at Little Koss, Aug. 
21st; "Merlin" at Monach, Oct. 3rd; "Small Hawk" at Skerryvore, 
Aug. 5th ; " SmaU Brown Hawk " at Skerryvore on Oct. 29th. I include 
them all here. 



50 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

follows : — The first week in March they arrive in all weathers, 
all day, flying west till midday at Cape Wrath, and return after 
that till dusk. They are not seenafter first week in October. ''Great 
numbers " on April 12th at Mull of Galloway. Intermittent in 
May, except 5th, at Island Glass, when they were seen all day — 
about thirty-five in all — wind S.S.E. Between 20th and 30th, 
at Skervuile, flying in all directions, along with Gulls and sea- 
birds. In July flocks flying north, on 26th, at Cape Wrath, and 
continued to do so till end of August. Daily average about forty. 
Flying past all August ; flying north on 13th at Portpatrick all 
day. Great rush flying north in thousands on 3rd, 4th, and 5th 
at Ehu Stoir. Small parties or flocks flying south on 5th at 
Skerryvore, and S.W. at Douglas on Aug. 26th. " Numbers " 
and "flocks " in September, flying south at Lismore, Skervuile, 
and Douglas. N.B. — I have been particular here in noting records, 
as I believe interest attaches especially in the connection of the 
migration of birds with that of fish. — J. A. H. B.* 

Ardeid.e. — Heron. Note. — " Large Black Cranes " are re- 
corded as passing Rhuvaal on Feb. 12th and 16th, wind N. to S. 
clear; and mod. S.E. clear. I cannot learn what these are. — 
Autumn : At Monacli, Ehuvaal, Douglas. Earliest Aug. 24th, 
at Rhuvaal ; latest Nov. 18th, at Monach, when eighteen were 
seen — a rush ? 

Anatid^. — Bernicle Goose (sp. ?). Spring : Large flock at 
Monach April 28th, flying N.W. Ditto ? at Stornoway, Ushenish, 
Lismore (three struck at latter station, two killed, one wounded), 
flying south. Latest May 3rd, at Ushenish (ten flying north). 
Autumn : Bernicle Goose (only record here) at Monach, Oct. 20th. 
" Wild Geese " at Cape Wrath, Ehu Stoir, Butt of Lewis, Ushe- 
nish, Kyleakin, Lamlash, Corsewall. Earliest Oct. 6th, at Ehu 
Stoir (seven ad. and one juv.) ; latest Dec. 4th, at Kyleakin 
(four flying east). Eushes inappreciable, equally distributed 
in small flocks during October (especially latter half) and 
November. Eider Duck. Spring : Butt of Lewis and Ehu Stoir on 
April 28th and June 23rd respectively. Autumn : At Butt of Lewis, 
Skerryvore, Dhuheartach. Earliest Sept. 11th, at Skerryvore; 



'•'' For an essay on which subject I ofi'ereda prize at the late International 
Fisheries Exhibition in Edinburgh, which was not competed tor. 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 51 

latest Nov. 12th, at Dhuheartach. Others on Oct. 10th at Butt of 
Lewis, &c. No rush apparent. Wild Duck. Spring : Lismore (in 
pairs), May 20th. Autumn: "Ducks" Nov. 2nd, at Ehuvaal 
(three dozen), and at Ehuvaal Dec. 7th (probably the same lot 
as on Nov. 2nd, q.v.) Sheldrake. Autumn : Only records at 
Douglas Head in August, flying S. on 21st, and flying S. on 27th. 
Wigeon. Autumn : At Monach only on Oct. 30th ; remained till 
Nov. 7th, during which time unusual numbers occurred. Date 
of Nov. 7th strong S.S.E. to W.S.W. winds, gales, and heavy 
rain. Wild Swans. At Skervuile one Swan remained three days, 
arriving Feb. 6th, 1881. 

CoLUMBiD.F.. — Rock Dovc. Only record : One sighted at 
Monach, and flew away again about midnight. Fresh east breeze 
and rain. 

Eallid^. — Corn Crake. Occurred first as follows : — Mull of 
Galloway, May 5th ; Loch Eyan, 4th ; Skervuile, 22nd ; Kyleakin, 
24th ; Butt of Lewis, 28th ; Ehu Stoir, June 20th. 

Charadriad^. — Golden Plover. Spring (or autumn ?), June 
20th, at Ehu Stoir. Autumn : At Butt of Lewis, Ehuvaal, Ehinns 
of Islay, Turnberry, Corsewall. Earliest Aug. 16th ; latest Dec. 
30th, at Ehinns of Islay. Eush : Generally large migration at 
Corsewall on Sept. 17th. Green Plover. Spring : Only record 
May 10th (two seen) at Ehu Stoir. Autumn : At Butt of Lewis, 
Dhuheartach, Ehinns of Islay, Corsewall, and Portpatrick. 
Earliest Aug. 24th, at Dhuheartach ; latest at Portpatrick on 
Dec. 4th (a flock flying N.W.). No appreciable rush. 

ScoLOPAciDiE. — Curlew. Spring : At Ehu Stoir, Stornoway, 
Island Glass, Ehuvaal, Little Eoss. Earliest Feb. 5th, at 
Bhuvaal ; latest June 19th, at Ehu Stoir and Little Eoss (widely 
separated. No rush appreciable. Autumn : At Monach, Ushe- 
nish. Isle Ornsay, Sound of Mull, Lismore, McAi'thur's Head, 
Tui'nberry, Portpatrick, and Point of Ayr. Earliest at Port- 
patrick, Aug. 2nd : latest on Dec. 16th, at Point of Ayr. Pushes 
inappreciable, unless at Sound of Mull, sixteen liymg S.E. (but 
hardly a rush). Snipe. Spring : May 18th, three seen at Island 
Glass. Autumn : At Island Glass and Loch Eyan. Earliest at 
Loch Eyan, Aug. 3rd ; latest at Island Glass on Oct. 10th. 
Woodcock. Autumn : (Scarce) ; at Butt of Lewis, Skerry vore, 
Lismore. Earliest Oct. 28th, at Butt of Lewis. Whimbrel? 
At Skerry vore six "small Curlew" resting on rock. Note. — 



52 Ri:roRT on the migration ok hirds. 

Wliimbrels unusually scarce this year at Monach. Eedshank. 
Spring : At Butt of Lewis, Skerrj'vore, and Kliuvaal. Earliest 
Feb. 5th (in a tlock, so perhaps belong to autumn) ; March 6th, 
at Butt of Lewis. Autumn : At Rhuvaal, Sept. 12th and 17th. 
Sandpiper. Spring : June 27th, at Skerryvore. Autumn : At 
Skerryvore, Lismore, and Little Ross. Earliest Sept. 10th, at 
Skerryvore ; latest Dec. 26th, at Little Ross. (This can hardly 
be Common Sandpiper so late. — J. A. H. B.). 

Sternin.e. — Common and Arctic Terns. Spring : At Rhu 
Stoir, Stornoway, Monach, McArthur's Head, Skervuile, Rhinns 
of Islay, Little Ross. Earliest May 10th, at Rhinns of Islay ; 
latest at Stornoway, June 8th (hereafter breeds). Autumn: At 
Monach (unusual numbers this year), Skervuile, Little Ross, and 
Douglas Head. Earliest July 8th, at Skervuile ; latest at Little 
Ross on Sept. 2nd. 

Larin.^.. — Gulls : Black-backed, Herring, and Kittiwake. 
Spring : At numerous stations, Stornow^ay, Island Glass, Sker- 
vuile. Earliest May 24th, at Skervuile ; latest at Stornoway, 
June 8th. N.B. — The movements of Gulls are most erratic 
and difficult to tabulate, and I prefer to hold them over at 
present. Skua. Occurred all summer on west coast of Lewis, 
as seen by reporter himself in June, frequented harbour 
of Carloway* in Lewis, and w^as seen inside of Rum. Un- 
commonly abundant at Island Glass, eight being seen in sight 
one day. Autumn : August, October ; at Skervuile, Aug. 12th, 
13th, and 14th; and at Sound of Mull on Oct. 12th and 13th, 
when some forty were seen ; N.W. gale. Iceland Gull. Au- 
tumn : At Kyleakin on Nov. 29th and Dec. 20th, both flying 
S.W. 

Procellariid^.. — Petrel. Autumn : Only at Lismore, Sept. 
17th, S.S.E., haze and rain. Noted as rare at Lismore 
by Mr. Murray ; indeed the first he has seen here in several 
years. 

Pelecanidti-:. — Scarts ; Curmoraiits. Spring: Arrived at Cape 
Wrath to breed in March. Autumn : Flying N.W. on Oct. 18th past 
Stornoway ; at Dhuheartach Nov. 10th ; and Skervuile on Nov. 
14th. 

Alcid^. — Records in every^ month, except February and 



'•' {i.e., Cairlobliaidh.) 



AVEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 53 

December. Spring : Great numbers. Eazorbills flying north on 
Jan. 7th, at Skervuile. Puffins seen at Butt of Lewis March 
3rd. " Rock Birds " in April, all day, flying south at Ushenish, 
and arrive last week in April ; breed first week in May. Hundreds 
of Puffins flying south on May 10th and 11th at Ushenish. 
"Auks " flying south at Skervuile. " Puffins " at Dhuheartach 
on 2nd and on 20th. Auks, Puffins, &c., at Ushenish, Skervuile. 
Earliest July 31st ; latest Oct. 18th, 19th, and 20th, at Ushenish. 
Rush : Thousands at Ushenish, along with Gannets and Kitti- 
wakes, feeding and flying south all day. 

Great Northern Divers. — Spring : At Skerrj^vore, two seen in 
June. Autumn : At Sound of Mull two seen feeding, male and 
feeding ; at same place, two on 10th. 



General Remarks. 

In 1879 there was scarcity of birds at many important 
stations, such as Butt of Lewis and Monach Island, Skerryvore and 
Dhuheartach. In that year westerly and N.W. winds prevailed. 
In 1880 larger numbers were noted. In that year easterly 
gales and winds prevailed all through the migratory season. In 
1879 migrants were scarce at the more northerly stations, being 
compressed by the westerly winds more towards the south, but 
in 1880 they reached much further north, being expanded by the 
following easterly gales and winds, as we have seen in treating 
of the east coast of Scotland this year. 

The stations visited by the largest numbers of birds are the Bell 
Rock and Isle of May, both being stations pretty far southward, 
and Pentland Skerries, a more northern station. We now find 
also that on the west coast the stations sending fullest numerical 
returns are also southerly stations, and for the most part are 
situated south of the Firth of Clj^de. Both on east and west 
coasts all returns coming in from north of Firth of Clyde in 
west, and north of Fu'th of Tay in east, except Pentland Skerries, 
report scarcity of birds as compared with last season (1880), and 
after November birds were unusually scarce. Writing from 
North Ronaldshay Mr. Tulloch tells us that birds seldom come 
so far north during migration, but usually trend more towards 
the mainland. On the west coast, at Rhu Stoir, very few birds 



54 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

are reported after November in most seasons, and similar reports 
come from Island Glass and others of the more northerly stations. 
The great gales from W. and S.W. during November and Decem- 
ber made all birds scarce at Monach Island, even Eider Ducks 
being unusually scarce. At Skerr^'vore birds never struck 
lanterns in flocks this year, but onl}^ in scattered instances. It 
will thus be seen that the migratory seasons of 1B79 and 1881 
most closely resemble each other, as regards our Scottish coasts, 
whilst that of 1880 was more abnormal, owing to the easterly 
winds prevailing. 

It would almost appear that the great rush of migrants in 
September on the Bell Rock, and more noticeably on Isle of May, 
would also account for the collection of birds at stations on the 
west coast south of the Firth of Clyde, as the dates tally with 
each other on both coasts, to see which it is only necessary to 
compare between them under several of the species. I have also 
independent reports upon the large crowds of birds seen passing 
south over the Solway Firth at these dates, few of which aj^pear 
to have been seen north of the Firth of Clyde.* Rushes have 
not been so large, yet they are indicated with tolerable precision 
by the returns. The extremely regular and open winter has no 
doubt much to do with this, the temperature in Great Britain 
having been higher than for many years previous. But these throbs 
or rushes being distinctly traceable is owing, on the other hand, I 
believe, to the prevailing wind fully as much as to the severity or 
non- severity of the weather. Rushes are normal phenomena in 
the West of Europe, because westerly or north-westerly or south- 
westerly winds usually prevail there. Regular or more dispersed 
movements of birds in the West of Europe are abnormal, because 

easterly winds are abnormal there. In 1880 we had a spread- 

. ^t 

* Mr. R. Service contributes the following: — "The severe gales retarded 
the migration of the shore bii'ds during October to a great extent, causing 
them to " accumulate " in our district for several weeks. On October 12tli I 
saw a twenty-acre field completely covered with Lapwings. At the same 
time, and for about a fortnight afterwards, the number of birds on the Solway 
banks was most extraordinary. The great majority of these were Bar-tailed 
Godwits, Oystercatchers, and Knots. Just outside the line of breakers 
opposite the rocks at Southemess Point, Scaups and Scoters were especially 
numerous, di%'ing above the mussel beds. As they rose and feU on the 
crests of the heaving waves these bu-ds formed many an interesting and 
beautiful group." 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. 55 

fan of migration, if I may so express it. In 1879 and 1881, in 
^Scotland, we had a closed-fan of migration. The natural result 
of the wide-spread fan is continuous streams of migration and 
no rushes ; that of the closed-fan great throbs and rushes, for 
birds prefer to travel with a beam wind and wait for favourable 
winds, and do not often voluntarily start on their flight with a 
following wind. The occurrence of the white-spotted form of 
Blue-throated Warbler after a succession of tremendous S.E. 
gales, culminating in the dreadful hurricane of Oct. 14th, clearly 
shows, I think, that acts of voluntary migration do not take place 
in following winds. This Bluethroat was caught up and borne 
away, nolens volens, and our Mid-Atlantic notes in 1880 show 
similar abnormal results from prevalence of easterly gales. It 
is to be regretted that we have no returns this season from Mid- 
Atlantic, owing to Mr. Anderson's engagements in the Mediter- 
ranean. Even total absence or perfectly negative evidence of 
birds in Mid-Atlantic would have given us a valuable standpoint 
as compared with the great mortality of 1880.* 

The lines of migration indicated in my Keport of Scotland 
for 1879 and 1880, and conclusions drawn from statistics of these 
two years, appear to me to be borne out by those of 1881, as 
regards the semicircular form of the migration, an account 
of which I have already given in our last report {op. cit., 
pp. 18, 19). 

The subject of heights of lanterns and their colours as 
attractions for birds has not developed as yet any fresh facts, but, 
with the conviction that they will yet do so, I still retain the 
table of heights given. Actual experiment, however, would very 
likely very soon set this part of the subject at rest (vide General 
Remarks, East Coast of Scotland Report, 1880, pp. 19, 20). A 
light-vessel or two placed in an equally favourable position with, 
let us say, the Isle of May or the Bell Rock on the east coast, or 

* I may mention here that I have made an endeavour to enhst the 
whaHng captains of Dundee in our service, but have not yet learned whether 
it has been successful or not. I had copies of the British Association 
Abstract reprinted in a cheap form, and I sent a bundle to Dundee for 
distribution amongst the captains. Should Mr. Anderson yet give us any 
Mediterranean statistics, they can appear as an Appendix to our Report 
for 1882. 



56 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

at some point north of Tweed, would, I believe, soon show us 
whether the preiDonderance of records south of the Tweed is 
entirely due to old-established lines of migration., or to the 
number of light-vessels on the English coast, or partly to both. 
It would, I think, assist in proving or disproving theories of land- 
communications which have been advanced and disputed by 
previous writers. At present we cannot positively state from 
our present data whether an actual or only an apparent pre- 
ponderance of birds pass south of the Tweed in autumn. It 
appears a little curious to find, however, a highway of migration 
by the Pentland Firth so much further north than the stations 
mentioned. Writing from North Eonaldshay Mr. TuUoch 
remarks upon the usual scarcity of birds there, and says 
'' they keep more direct for the mainland " ; and he re- 
marks also upon the abundance of birds seen in September 
and November at Pentland Skerries, where he was lighthouse- 
keeper for fom- years. He remarks on the abundance of Mountain 
Thrushes, Blackbirds, Owls, Woodcocks, Wrens, Robins, and 
Titmice which occur there when the wind is from the east, and 
from which station I have a large numerical return this year. 
This at first sight appears to be a contradiction of what I have 
said about the bulk of the birds passing south of Bell Rock, but, be 
it noted, the prevailing winds at Pentland Skerries from August 
23rd to September 12th were from points between north and 
south by east, but never by west, and- thereafter, between 
September 14th and October 10th, they were prevailing south to 
south-west, but never west or north-west. From October 14th 
they backed to north-east, and easterly winds again prevailed 
here on till late in November. The isolated position of the 
lights at Pentland Skerries, combined with the local prevalence 
of easterly winds, is perhaps sufficient to account for the large 
mass of the records. At all events I think the Pentland Skerries 
returns are deserving, both now and in future, of special atten- 
tion and study, and I look ujpon it as a particularly interesting 
station. 

Isle of May stands this year at the head of the list for nume- 
rical returns, I having received seven full schedules from Mr. 
Agiiew, principally referring to autumn migration. Next comes 
Bell Rock, but two out of three schedules refer to spring 
migration, of which more anon. Then Sumburgh Head and 



WEST COAST OF SCOTLAND. • 57 

and Pentland Skerries, about equal, but the latter rather the 
larger, both returning three filled schedules, principally autumn 
migration.* 

Regarding the spring migration, the Bell Eock and the Isle 
of May have hitherto held their place as yielding the largest 
returns, and very considerable numerical returns are given for 
1881. Now, Sandwich Terns pass every spring up north along 
the coast of Forfarshire, but shoot off from the land again, and 
do not breed upon much of the suitable lands they pass over. 
An occasional pair of birds do remain and breed, as is shown 
by the nesting of this species on Inch Mickery, in the Firth 
of Forth, this past season, and on a previous occasion at the 
same place. In the same way we know that Grey Plover, 
Knot, and Bartailed Godwit shoot off the land at Spurn Point, 
as they are obtained there in full breeding dress, but nowhere 
to the north of it in breeding plumage, except in isolated 
cases. The routes of spring migrants, while they are usually 
more direct than those of autumn migrants, are perhaps more 
difficult to trace, and our statistics as yet are far from perfect. 
Since the above remarks were penned I have a well-filled schedule 
from Isle of May relating to the spring migration of 1882, which, 
however, will be included in our next Report. 

The extraordinarily large migration of raptorial birds is worth 
a remark here, and it is interesting to find with what regularity 
and precision such foreign species as the Rough-legged Buzzard 
recur year after year along certain very clearly defined lines, 
records of captures constantly indicating this. 

It will be seen that the results of our statistics on the Scottish 
coasts show a '' closed-fan " of migration, owing to prevalence of 
westerly winds, except at Pentland Skerries, where local easterly 
winds blew at the times of migration in September and Novem- 
ber, and on the Scottish coast, from BeU Rock and southward, 
we had the greatest rushes, whilst further south, on the English 
coasts, there was an " open-fan" of migration, owing to a preva- 
lence of east winds. ■ • 

* Besides several more relating to 1882. 



68 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 

Schedules, &c., were forwarded to forty lighthouses and 
light-vessels on the west coast of England ; from twenty-four 
returns have been received. The absence of returns is in some 
cases due to accident, e. g., at Caernarvon l.v., Mr. Bowen, the 
keeper, had been disabled with a broken rib, the result of a fall on 
board in a gale of wind, and there had been several changes of 
mates within a short period. In part, absence of reports is 
accounted for by the situation of the station — e. g.y at Nash are 
two lighthouses, and from the western one, Mr. Richards, who 
last year supplied us with a well-filled schedule, having retired 
from the service, his successor objected to continue the work on 
the ground that it is so near to Nash E. On Lundy Island also 
are two stations close to each other, and last year the two 
reports therefrom were almost identical in every particular 
instance. Menai is reported as being out of the track of bu'ds 
migrating, as also St. Bees. Still we should be glad to hear 
from these and the other stations that have not reported, and. 
hope that next year all will send in returns, however slight, as 
** every little helps." Special thanks are due to those who have 
reported ; they have given themselves considerable trouble, which 
will, however, not be thrown away ; and the novelty and inte- 
resting nature of the work may in some degree perhaps com- 
pensate them for their pains. Mr. Baker writes, from Milford, 
" It would be a great help if a book could be supplied to different 
reporters, with a print of the different birds in it." If funds can 
be raised, we hope in time to & able to supply this want. 

To Mr. Thompson we are indebted for a report from a hew 
station, Allonby, on Solway Firth, which promises to be a good 
one, and which — being the northernmost on this coast — now heads 
our list. 

The numbers of the stations differ from those of last year's 
report, beginning at 121 instead of 110 (the last included in 
Eepoiii of West Coast of Scotland being 120). The following is 
the list, those from which returns have been received being 
marked with an asterisk (*) : — 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 59 

121. -AUonby, l.h. C. Donald Thompson. 

122. =-St. Bees, l.h. ; the tower 55 feet high, on chffs estimated at 

300 to 350 feet. E. E. Pizey. 

123. '-Morecambe Bay, l.v. ; centre of light above sea-level, 36 feet. 

Henry Clavell, P. K. ; Dl. Kneale, mate. 

124. *Air, L.H. C. H. Aveston. 

125. =f^Menai, l.h. Joseph Steer, P. K. 

126. -Skerries, l.h. J. Garrett, P. K. ; H. Knott. 

127. -Holyhead Breakwater, l.h. E. Prichard. 

128. North Stack, Fog Horn Station. John Harvey, gunner. 

129. -South Stack, l.h. W. E. Burgess. 

130. Caernarvon Bay, l.v. ; centre of light above sea-level, 37 feet. 

W. Bowen. 

131. ^<St. Tudwal's, l.h. W. Davies. 

132. -Bardsey, l.h. Thomas Bowen. 

133. Cardigan Bay, l.v. 

134. -Bull Point, l.h. ; centre of light above high water level, 154 

feet. George Knott. 

135. South Bishop, l.h. John White. 

136. Smalls, l.h. W. Boulton. 

137. -Great Castle Head, l.h. W. S. Spicer. 

138. -Milford (Low), l.h. Fixed, white; centre of light from ground, 

26 feet ; Headland 150 feet from sea-level. (Syren fog 
horn 5 seconds every 3 minutes during fog, snow, or 
thick weather, about equidistant from each light). 
G. Baker. 

139. Milford (High), l.h. Fixed, white, showing red at entrance to 

harbour. G. Baker. 
(These two are looked upon as one station). 

140. Caldy, l.h. Centre of light above sea-level, about 250 feet. 

W. Ebben, P. K. 

141. Helwick, l.v. Thomas Cornell, mate. 

142. Scarweather, l.v. Henry Jenkins. 

143. Nash (Low or W.), l.h. — Wilson. 

144. -Nash (High or E.), l.h. Three lights: 1, upper, white, fixed, 

visible 19 miles ; 2, fixed, red, shown from a window 
below lantern, shown N. of N.W. I W., which bearing 
wili lead ^ mile S. of Breaksea Buoy; 3, a ray of red 
shown from a window below Breaksea light, extending 
over an arc between S.S.E. f E. and S.E. -J S., about 
2|- cables southward of Tusker Buoy. H. T. Nicholas. 

145. Breaksea, l.v. 



60 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

146. =: Flatholm, l.h. W. Dale, P. K. 

147. -Usk, L.H. Centre of light above sea-level, about 50 feet. Amos 

Russell. 

148. Avon, L.H. William Taylor. 

149. -Burnham, l.h. About 100 feet above sea-level. William Lewis. 

150. -i^Bideford, l.h. Low light, white, centre above sea-level 48 feet; 

Upper light white, centre above sea-level 96 feet. Edwd. 
Roberts. 

151. Lundy Fog Gun Station. John Morgan. 

152. -Lundy, l.h. Upper Ught revolving, powerful white, about 540 

feet above sea-level. James Parsons. 

153. -Hartland Point, l.h. John Griffiths. 

154. Trevose Head, l.h. Fixed, white ; upper 180 feet and lower 

120 feet above sea-level. W. Bowen. 

155. ^Godrevy, l.h. Richard Trahair. 

156. =;=Longships, l.h. Red towards shore ; lantern 110 feet above 

high-water mark. William Jones, P. K. 

157. Sevenstones, l.v. Daniel Norton. 

158. Wolfrock,.L.H. W. D. Crask. 

159. -Scilly, L.H. White, 150 feet above sea-level. E. L. Davis. 

160. Bishop Rock, l.h. 

In the above list particulars of colour and height of lights, &c., 
are given where omitted from list of last year or where there have 
been alterations. Notes on the spring migration, being but few, 
have not been drawn up in a distinct report. Next year it is 
hoped that these may be much fuller and more general. 

Altogether about sixty-two species have been noticed on this 
coast-line, including about fourteen species of Gulls and Water- 
birds. 

To the various observers, and to the Trinity Superintendents, 
Mr. Davison, Mr. Evans, and JMr. Tregarthen, our thanks are 
given for their continued interest and kind assistance. 



SEPARATE REPORT ON EACH SPECIES. 

Song Thrush, Tardus miisiciis, Linn. ; Fieldfare, Turdus 
pilaris, Linn. — Spring : At Scilly, from Jan. 13th to 25th, large 
flocks of Thrushes, Fieldfares, Larks, and Starlings remained 
during the snow. At Godrevy/on 14tb, a great number of 
Thrushes, Starlings, and Lapwings from noon to 4 p.m., fresh 
E.S.E. breeze, frost and snow. At Air (River Dee), on March 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 61 

30th, a Common Thrush was seen, at 9 a.m., light N.W. breeze, 
mist. — Autumn : Earliest date recorded Oct. 24th, when one 
killed at Godrevy, 1.30 a.m., mod. S.S.E. breeze, mist and rain; 
latest notice Dec. 24th, at Skerries, one killed, 3 a.m., strong 
S.S.W. breeze, misty. 

Kedwing, Turdus iliacus, Linn. — Separately noticed at God- 
revy only, namely, Nov. 4th, at 3.30 a.m., one killed, fresh S.W. 
by S. breeze, mist and rain. On Nov. 13th, one killed, 6.10 p.m., 
fresh S.S.W. breeze, fog. On 22nd, at 2 p.m., one struck, fresh 
W.S.W. gale, squally and misty. 

Blackbird, Turdus merula, Linn. — Autumn : First notice 
Sept. 28th, at Morecambe Bay, "one. cock Blackbird in the 
vicinity." Through October the notices are more frequent and 
general. At Skerries, South Stack, and at Bull Point, on 25th 
and 26th, several struck and some were killed. At Bull Point, 
Oct. 31st, " a female " struck against the W. side of the lantern, 
1.40 a.m., light S.E. breeze, cloudy, misty. The only stations 
reporting occurrences in November are Allonby, where through 
the month " a good many were about the hedgerows"; and one 
instance at Morecambe Bay (where none were seen in October), 
viz. on 4th, ''a young female in vicinity." The next and last 
notice is Godrevy, where on Dec. 25th, at 6 a.m., one struck, 
gentle S.W. breeze, clear. 

Wheatear, Saxicola oenanthe, Linn. — On Sept. 23rd, at South 
Stack, between 12 and 2 a.m., several struck and one was killed, 
light S.E. gloomy, misty. This is the only instance given. 

Redbreast, Erithacus ruhecula, Linn. — Spring : At Great 
Castle Head, on Jan. 20th, also on Feb. 1st, 4th, and 24th, 
''two or three Robins and Sparrows" were noticed about 7 a.m., 
mod. S.S.E., E.S.E., S.W., and N. breezes respectively. On 
March 1st, at 9 a.m., two Eobins and two Magpies, fresh N.W. 
breeze, gloomy and showery, with snow. Autumn : On Oct. 
28th, at Morecambe Bay, "a female Redbreast" in vicinity, 
10 a.m., mod. N.N.E. breeze. 

Nightingale, Daulias luscinia, Linn. — Spring : On April 
22nd, at Burnham, "heard at 5 a.m. for first time, being one 
day later than last year, and in the very same spot." — W. 
Lewis, P. K. 

Goldcrest, Regidus cristatiiSf Koch ; Chiffchaff, Phylloscojnis 
collybita, Vieill. — Spring : On May 2nd, at Nash E., 200 



62 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Chiffchaffs were counted from 1 a.m. to sunrise, light E. air, 
haze ; 196 were killed. Autumn : On Oct. 26th, at South Stack, 
a few Goldcrests from 12 to 4 a.m., one killed, gentle E. breeze. 
The same day, at Morecambe Bay, one (cock) Goldcrest flew on 
board, struck the deck-house and fell on deck, but was not 
killed ; and at Nash, the same day, 12 to 18 Chiffchaffs passed 
at 4 a.m., and 6 were killed, light E.N.E. breeze, rain. On Dec. 
31st, at 3 a.m., one Goldcrest struck at South Stack, light S.W. 
breeze, cloudy. From Flatholm, Mr. Dale reports " Gold crested 
Wrens and Chiffchaffs not so numerous as usual in the autumn." 
Taking the whole family of the Turdidje, the chief movement as 
observed on the west coast occurred the latter end of October : 
this, we find, agrees with a general movement of the family 
noticed on both coasts of Scotland, and also a rush from E. to 
W. observed on the English east coast. On Oct. 14th was 
"a whole gale" from the E., after which the winds continued 
E. and S.E. to the end of the month — the force when noted 
ranging from 2 to 7. With the exception of the Eedwing, and 
excepting the note of Blackbirds and of Robins seen at Allonby, 
there has scarcely been an instance recorded of any of the 
family seen throughout November. There is an absolute absence 
of Fieldfares, and the scarcity of the family generally is remarked 
on from many stations. Thus, from Allonby, Mr. Thompson 
writes (Nov., 1881), "No Fieldfares seen in this part, which is 
very unusual." At Skerries, of Blackbirds, Thrushes, Field- 
fares, &c., '* very few are now seen." At Lundy, " till January, 
Mr. Parsons writes, *'we had no birds on the islands, only now 
and then a Blackbird or Thrush." At Usk, Blackbird and 
Thrush seen occasionally. And from Nash E., Mr. Nicholas, P.K., 
writes in October, ''Blackbirds and Thrushes have been very 
scarce since the gale and snowstorm of Jan. 18th last," and "not 
one Thrush has been seen here since January." Note :— At 
Bardsey, however, Mr. Bowen says of Blackbirds, Grey-birds (?), 
Jackdaws, House and Common (?) Sparrows, and Starlings, that 
they are resident. Does this mean that they are seen all the 
year round ; even so, is there no increase and decrease in the 
number noticeable, and if so, when ? Are Gre^-birds the Grey- 
backed Crows? What is the difference between •" House " and 
"Common" Sparrow? Does the latter mean the Hedgesparrow, 
or is one the Tree Sparrow ? If there be any doubt, a specimen, 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 63 

or the skin, head, or wings sent through the post would serve to 
identify the species. 

Wren, Troglodytes parviihis, Koch. — Autumn : First notice 
Sept. 4th, at Skerries, at 2 a.m., several struck the glass and 
remained till daybreak, light S.S.W. breeze, hazy. On 24th, at 
South Stack, a few struck between 9 and 10 p.m., W.N.W., fog. 
And on Sept. 30th, at Bull Point, one struck N.E. side of the 
lantern, with a mod. S.S.E. breeze, hazy (not a following wind). 
On Oct. 23rd, at Skerries, Wrens with Linnets were %ing about 
all day ; and — the latest notice — on 26th, one passed Morecambe 
Bay L.v. at sunrise, flying N. 

Wagtail, Motacilla (?). — Spring: On Feb. 10th, at Great 
Castle Head, four Dishwashers at 5 a.m., strong S.S.W. breeze, 
showery and foggy. — Autumn: The first notice at Nash E., on 
Aug. 21st, "thirty to forty Wagtails passed S.W.," 6 a.m., mod. 
S.S.E. breeze, very clear. The}^ are not again noticed till Sept. 
8th, at Bull Point, when about two dozen ''Dishwashers and 
Linnets " passed inland, 6 a.m., S.S.W., calm, clear. On the 
19th, at Morecambe Bay, three Wagtails flying S.W., 7.30 a.m., 
gentle N.W. breeze ; and on the 25th, "one" flying about the 
ship in the forenoon. On Oct. 5th, one flying S. by E., mod. 
N.E. by N. breeze; and on 7th, one flying N.W., light S.S.W. 
breeze. This is the last recorded, except at Allonby, where, 
Mr. Thompson writes on 20th, " Wagtails are common in these 
parts." 

Meadow Pipit, Anthus pratejisiSfhinn. — Autumn: Fii'st notice 
Aug. 25th, at Nash, "eight Titlarks passed S.," strong S.W. 
breeze, rain. At Morecambe Bay, Sept. 25th, light N.W. breeze, 
some passed S.S.E. On 27th, "one or two at a time going 
N.N.W., W., and S.W., a gentle N.W. by N. breeze ; and on 28th, 
going S.W., light S. by E. breeze. Till Oct. 25th are constant 
notices of small flocks passing, their general direction being 
S.W. and S. : wind ranging from calm to mod. gale, but 
generally (when instances- noted) not strong; till 8th easterly, 
then till 16th W. prevailing; after which E., with more or less 
of N. Time of records for the most part, the forenoon. At 
Longships, on Oct. 28th, one fluttered about the lantern at 
midnight, fresh N. to N.W. breeze, drizzly. This is the last 
notice till Nov. 29th, when at Morecambe Bay l.v. Titlarks were 
seen at 7.40 a.m., flying N.E., mod. N.W. by W. breeze. 



64 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Rock Pipit, Anthus ohscurus, Lath. — At St. Tudwal's, in Jan., 
1882, '' two pairs of Sea Larks " are reported, with the note, 
** they remain here for the winter " (Is the Rock Pipit meant by 
Sea Lark? If a specimen were procured and sent by post it 
might easily be identified; or is it the Ringed Dotterel?). 

Swallow, Hinindo rustica, Linn. — Autumn : First notice at 
Skerries, Aug. 14th, ** two land-swallows flying about the island 
this morning." Next notice Sept. 3rd and 4th, at Milford, 
"a considerable quantity"; and on 10th Sept., at Bideford, 
*' hundreds flying round and lighting on lantern," 5 p.m., 
calm E., fine, misty. On 18th and 25th several were seen from 
Skerries and from Morecambe Bay, flying S. and S.S.E : and on 
Oct. 2nd and 3rd some passed Morecambe Bay, flying S.E. by S., 
and S. On 7th, five were seen at Godrevy, 12.15 p.m. ; and on 
19th, at Bull Point, '' a large flock passed, flying E.," strong 
E.S.E. breeze, this being the latest instance recorded. 

Martin, Chelidoti urhica, Linn. — Autumn : Sept. 24th, at 
Skerries, several were seen flying about the island with Swallows 
during the afternoon. From Flatholm Mr. Dale wi'ites, " about 
the middle of September there was an unusually large quantity 
of Martins for a few days." 

Greenfinch, Ligurinus Moris, Linn. ; Yellowhammer, Em- 
beriza citrinella, Linn. — Noticed only at Allonby,- where, Oct. 
20th, Green Linnets and Yellowhammers were seen in mixed 
flocks. 

Sparrow, Passer domesticiis, Linn. ; P. montanus, Linn. — 
Spring : On Jan. 12th, at North Stack, '' a flock of Mountain 
Sparrows" flying S.W., strong N.E. breeze, snow. At Great 
Castle Head, on 30th, " Sparrows with Robins " ; and the 
notices are continuous throughout February (on 14th with 
*' Ravens "). In March, 4th ^nd 10th, " Sparrows with Robins." 
On 31st, ** a flight of Sparrows." The time of the observations 
mostly between 6 and 8 a.m. ; the weather invariably gloomy or 
foggy ; breeze gentle to strong, and southerly, except on 24th N., 
and on 31st E.N.E. ; the direction of flight not noted. Autumn : 
Sept. 11th, at Nash, "large flocks of Common Sparrows passed 
S.W., light N.E. breeze. On 12th, "twenty" in same direction, 
light N., misty. At Bardsey, House and Common Sparrow (?) 
reported " resident all the year round." 

Chaffinch, Fringilla coelehs, Linn. — Autumn : Sept. 6th, at 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 65 

Nash, ''fifteen to twenty Chaffinches struck at midnight, four 
killed," mod. E. breeze, rain. On Oct. 17th, at Morecambe 
Bay, one, flying W.N.W., mod. S. breeze; and on 19th, one, 
flying S.E., mod. S.E. gale. 

Linnet, Linota cannahina, Linn.^Autumn : First notice at 
Nash, Sept. 7th, **a large flock of Linnets passed W. at 9 p.m.," 
fresh E.S.E. breeze, mist. On 8th, at Bull Point, "about two 
dozen Linnets and Dishwashers," 6 a.m., passing inland, S.S.W., 
calm, clear. On 25th, at Skerries, " many Linnets and Wrens 
all night striking the light," only a few killed, mod. W.S.W. 
breeze, misty. On 27th, at South Stack, " about fifty Linnets " 
passed W.N.W. at 7 a.m., gentle N.N.W. breeze, fine and clear. 
From this station flocks were observed till Oct. 16th passing 
N.W. or W.N.W., with light S.E. wind. At Skerries they were 
again noticed between Oct. 17th and 27th, generally with Larks, 
once with Blackbirds also, and once "Linnets and Wrens"; 
wind on every occasion S.E. or E.S.E., light breeze to fresh gale. 
On 24th and 25th, fresh E.S.E. gale, "Linnets, Larks, and 
Blackbirds passed all night, many striking, and a few being 
killed." On Oct. 16th, at Milford, "a considerable number 
passed." At Godrevy, Nov. 7th, one struck, light S.S.W. breeze, 
clear. The latest is reported from Milford, Nov. 23rd, " a con- 
siderable number with Larks have been about the land here the 
last few days," fresh breeze to mod. gale S.S.W. to W., "which 
prevented their going farther." 

Bullfinch, Pyrrhula euroxxEci (Yieill.). — Oct. 28th at More- 
cambe Bay, a female noticed at 2 p.m., mod. N.N.E. breeze. 

Sky Lark, Alaucla arvensis, Linn.-^-Spring : From Jan. 13th 
to 25th, " Sky Larks seen at Lundy and at Scilly." On 11th, 
"a quantity" arrived with Plovers and Starlings at Milford, and 
remained all day. On 12th and 13th, at South Stack, "con- 
tinuous flocks of Larks and Starlings passed," fresh N.E. breeze, 
snow. Autumn : Sept. 24th, " a flock of Sky Larks " passed 
S.E., 3 p.m., mod. S.E. breeze, mist. On 25th, at Morecambe 
Bay, "three," and on 27th, at same hour, 10 a.m., "two 
passed" N.E., gentle N.W. by N. breeze. On 29th, at Nash, 
"a few Larks with Starlings" passed at noon, gentle E. N.E. 
breeze, mist. At Morecambe, Oct. 5th, one passed S., mod. 
E. by S. breeze. On 16th, three passed W.S.W., light N.N.E. 
breeze. At Skerries, throughout October, notices of passing 

K 



66 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

cliieHy at night, striking, and some killed; wind mod. S.E. to 
E.S.E. On 16th, at South Stack, *' a flock of Larks accom- 
panying a flock of Linnets " passed W.N.W., light S.E. air. On 
21st, at Milford, a flight passed inland, 1 p.m., E.S.E. clear 
(the following night there was a fresh gale). In November, at 
Morecambe, on 4th, *' a female " ; and at Milford, 23rd, " a con- 
siderable number with Linnets been about the last few days," 
S.S.W. to W. fresh breeze to mod. gale. On Dec. 2nd, at 
Morecambe, " a male Sky Lark came on board and was caught, 
7.45 a.m., mod. S.W. breeze, gloomy, misty. At Skerries, on 
22nd, "a few Larks" struck from 10 to 11 p.m., one being 
killed, gentle E.N.E. breeze. 

Starling, Star mis vulgaris, Linn. — Spring : At South Stack, 
Jan. 12th and 13th, Starlings and Larks. On 14th, at Godrevy, 
*' a great number with Thrushes and Lapwings" from noon to 
4 p.m., fresh E.S.E. breeze, frost and snow. At Scilly, 13th to 
25th, ''large flocks with Larks and Fieldfares." On 7th several 
at Nash, and on 16th " flocks " passing N.W., light air, misty. On 
Feb. 16th, at Great Castle Head, " six were seen with Eavens," 
4 p.m., mod. S.S.E. breeze, rain; and at Scilly, on 22nd, with 
Lapwings, Plovers, and Curlews, 9 a.m., strong E.N.E. breeze. 
Autumn: First notice at Nash, Aug. 13th, **a small flock" 
passed S.W., 9 a.m., gentle W. breeze, fog; so also on 19th, 
mod. E. breeze, mist. On Se^Dt. 24th "a small flock" passed 
S.E., mod. S.E. breeze, mist, rain. Qn 29th, ''twenty-four 
Starlings and a few Larks " passed S.W. at noon, gentle E.N.E. 
breeze, mist. At Morecambe, Sept. 27th, at 11.50 p.m., "two 
going W. and chirping loud," light W. air. On Oct. 1st, at 
Scilly, " flocks flying about in the morning," mod. S.E. breeze. 
On 13th, at South Stack, 7.30 a.m., "a very large flock rushed 
on the island," fresh N.N.W.i>reeze ; they passed to E. ; on 17th 
a few passed, two struck, but were not killed. On 19th, at 
Morecambe, one going S.S.E. at 8 a.m., and at 3.23 p.m. three 
going S.E., mod. S.E. gale. On 25th, one going E., mod. E. 
breeze. At Nash, on 21st, fifty to sixty passed, 4 a.m., fresh 
E.S.E. breeze, mist, rain (11 killed) ; and on 27th, at about the 
same hour, 100 to 150 passed to S.W., 10 to 20 struck, 4 killed, 
mod. E.N.E. breeze. At Bideford, throughout October, hundreds 
seen often in the morning, flying past from N.W. to E., to feed 
on Branston Burrows. In November, at South Stack, on 12th, 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 67 

flocks passed S., about fifty rested on the island, 8 a.m., mod. 
S.W. breeze, fine, clear. On 15th, at Morecambe, a flock at 
10.55 a.m. passed, flying E.S.E., fresh S. breeze, mist, rain. At 
Nash, the same day and hour, 200 to 300 passed S.W., fresh S. 
breeze, mist (one white Starling among them) ; on 24tli, twelve 
to eighteen passed at 8 a.m., strong S.W. breeze, clear. On 
Dec. 14th, 300 passed S.W. at noon, mod. S.W. breeze, mist, 
rain ; and constant occurrences are noted at this station up to 
Feb. 7th, 1882. On Dec. 23rd a large flock passed to E., 8.30 
a.m., calm ; and on 31st, at same hour, a large flock passed to 
S.E., gentle S.S.E. breeze, fine and clear. On Jan. 16th, 1882, 
at 7.50 p.m., some struck the lantern, strong S. breeze, misty. 
At Skerries, on 17th, a great many passed all night, fifteen 
killed, strong S.W. breeze, mist ; and at sunrise large flocks 
flying towards the land. On 20th, at Hartland Point, one 
struck, 9 p.m., calm. From Flatholm they are reported to have 
been very scarce. 

Magpie, Pica rustica, Scop. — On March 1st, Great Castle 
Head, two Magpies and three Kobins seen, 9 a.m., mod. N.W. 
breeze, gloomy, showery. 

Jackdaw, Corvus monedula, Linn. — Autumn : In October it is 
reported from Allonby that a number of Jackdaws frequent these 
parts. On Oct. 25th, at Morecambe l.v., one seen at noon going 
S. by W., lighted on mizen-mast a moment, and then flew away 
very tired, strong E. breeze, clear. 

Crow, Corvus comix, Linn. ; Chough, Pyrrhocorax graculus, 
Linn. — Spring: Feb. 18th, at Great Castle Head, ''four Muscle 
Crows," 5 a.m., mod. to fresh E. breeze. On 22nd, at 7 a.m., six, 
E.N.E. On March 22nd, at 8 a.m., four Crows with two Eavens, 
strong breeze W. S.W. to mod. gale; and on 26th, four Crows. 
Autumn : Sept. 13th, at Nash, a small flock of Choughs passed 
S.W. at 3 p.m., gentle N.N.W. breeze, clear. At Morecambe, 
Sept. 28th, one Crow in vicinity, 11.20 a.m., gentle S. breeze, 
slight fog. On Oct. 13th, at Nash, a very large flock of Crows and 
Gulls seen inland from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., mod. W. breeze, very clear; 
and on Dec. 14th, 40 Crows (with 300 Starlings) at noon, mod. 
S.W. breeze. On Jan. 20th, 100 with Gulls passed S.W., 11 a.m. 
(Would some of these notices refer to Books ?) 

Kook, Corvus frugilegus, Linn. — Nov. 6th, at Allonby, a great 
many Eooks coming from N., flying S., strong S.W. breeze. 



68 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Raveu, Corvus corax, Linn. — Spring : At Great Castle Head, 
Feb. 14tli, two with Sparrows, 4 p.m., strong S. breeze, showers. 
On 15th, two with Starhngs at same horn*, mod. S.S.E. breeze. 
On March •22nd, two, and fom* Crows, 8 a.m., strong W.S.W. 
breeze, showers. 

Cuckoo, Ciiculus canorus, Linn. — Spring : At Air (River Dee), 
on April 10th, a male and female seen, 4.30 p.m., mod. S.S.E. 
breeze, clear. On 19th, at Bm'nham, Cuckoo heard, weather 
very cold. At Nash, on 15th, eleven Cuckoos passed N.W. from 
1 to 3 p.m., calm, mist. On 16th, five passed N.W. from 8 to 9 
a,m., light E.S.E. aii-, mist. On May 4th, four passed S.W. at 
9 a.m., gentle E.S.E. breeze, mist, rain. 

Falcon, Falco peregrinus (Tunstall). — At Morecambe l.v., 
Nov. 21st, 3.30 p.m., a Falcon Hawk fell in the water close to 
the L.V., very tired, was drowned. At Hartland Point, Jan. 24th, 
1882, a very large Hawk seen at a distance, 3.30 p.m., calm and 
clear. 

Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carho, Linn. — At Skerries, from 
May to September, Cormorants and Curlews seen occasionally. 
At Bideford, in September, a few Shags. At Morecambe, Oct. 
9th, one Cormorant going ^\., 2.15 p.m., strong N.W. breeze, 
about through the day. 

Gannet, Sula hassana, Linn. — Spring : At Hol^'head, April 
29th, four crossed, 1 p.m., flying from E. to W., mod. S.W. gale. 
Autumn : At Skerries, Sept. 11th, several at sum'ise flying W. 
at a great height, mod. N.E., clear. At Morecambe, Oct. 7th, 
7 a.m., one going S. ; and on 8th, one going E. On 9th a good 
many, and on 10th a few were seen. At Hartland Point, Nov. 
20th, several flying to and fro (and during the whole of the month). 

Heron, Ardea cinerea, Linn. — At Skerries, Sept. 8th, one 
alighted close to the lighthcTuse, 6 p.m., calm and fine. At 
Allonby, Oct. 20th, several observed at 11 a.m. coming from the 
north, flying S., fresh N.E. breeze, clear. 

Goose, Anser (/) — Spring: At Nash E., passing W. in January. 
At Sevenstones, on 11th, several flocks passed, flying W. ; and 
at Scill}^ on 25th, three were seen. On Dec. 13th, at Hartland 
Point, Geese in flights going E., and on 23rd several birds going 
in same direction. On Jan. 17th, 1882, several (single birds, 
not in flights) during the morning flying W. These are all the 
instances noted. 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 69 

Sheldrake, Tadorna cornuta, Gmel. — March 29th, at Air 
(Eiver Dee), forty-one pairs at sunrise, gentle W.N.W. breeze. 
Oct. 17th, at Allonby, two flying S., 8 p.m., mod. S.E. breeze. 

Duck, Anas boschas, Linn.; Mareca pejielope,h.; (Edemia{I); 
Querquedida crecca, Linn. — Spring : At Godrevy, on Jan. 6th, 
a flock of Ducks and a Mallard flying W. On 13th and 14th, at 
Nash, flocks of Wild Ducks flying W. On 26th, at St. Tudwal's, 
" Ducks." On March 18thj Bardsey, three Ducks and one Drake 
Wigeon, at 1.30 a.m., mod. S.S.W. breeze, sleet. Autumn : 
Fu'st notice Sept. 1st, at Holj^head, large flocks of Wild Ducks 
in bay, 11.30 a.m., fresh N.E. breeze, clear. At Godrevy, on 
15th, four "Black Ducks" (? Scoters), 1.30 p.m., mod. N. by E. 
breeze, clear. At Morecambe, on 14th and 15th, at 7 a.m.^ 
Wild Ducks flying S.S.W. , light W. breeze, clear. During the 
first two weeks of October Wild Ducks are reported as passing 
towards the S.W., S.E., and S., the greatest number on the 9th ; 
and on 19th and 24th, Black Ducks going S.E. or S.S.W. At 
Scilly, on 18th, three Wild Ducks, strong S.E. breeze. At Nash, 
on 21st, four Wild Ducks (Black Ducks) at 3.30 a.m. struck, one 
killed, strong E.S.E. breeze. On 26th, at Allonby, five Grey Ducks 
at 1.30 p.m., strong E. breeze, clear. In November Black Ducks 
and Wild Ducks were noticed from Morecambe Bay, Godrevy, 
and Air, passing to S. or E. At Godrevy, Dec. 14th, at 8.30 
p.m., one Wild Duck was killed, fresh N. breeze, clear ; and at 
Air, to Dec. 9th, flocks of Wild Ducks passed inland about 
sunset. At Morecambe, on Dec. 2nd, some were seen flying 
S.W. ; and from Dec. 2nd to 11th Wild Ducks in numbers — 
from one and two to thirteen — passed, flying N.W., N.N.W\ 
(and once W.N.W., with strong W.N.W. breeze), wind S.S.W. or 
mod. S.S.E., generally mist or rain. Time of observation 
varying from 8.30 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. On 27th one passed, flying 
S., gentle N.W. breeze. At Nash, on 20th, fifteen Ducks passed 
at midnight, two struck (not killed). On 29th, forty to fifty 
passed S. at 3.20 p.m., light S.W. breeze, fog ; on same day, at 
3.30 a.m., 100 to 150 Teal passed S.W. On 31st, four Ducks 
passed S.W. at 4 a.m., strong S.W. breeze, clear. On Jan. 24th 
about 200 seen close to the cliffs all day. 

Wood Pigeon, Columha palumhus, Linn. — On June 22nd, at 
Nash, two Wood Pigeons struck (one killed), 2 a.m., mod. W. 
breeze. At Skerries, Aug. , two Pigeons seen in the afternoon, 



70 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

remained some time. On Oct. 21st, at Nash, at 4' p.m., one 
killed, fresh E.S.E. breeze. On Nov. 30th, at Allonby, flocks of 
Wood Pigeons coming from E., flying W., strong S.W. breeze, 
cloudy. 

Landrail, Crex pratensis, Bechst. — At Nash, June 19th, one 
killed at 1 a.m., light N. air, fog; again on Oct. 29th, one killed, 
3.50 a.m., light E.N.E. breeze, mist. 

Golden Plover, Charadriiis pluvialis, Linn. — Spring : At 
Nash, between Jan. 3rd and 11th, flocks of Plovers, Peewits, 
and Starlings passed W. or N.W. At Bardsey, Feb. 11th, flocks 
of four and five Golden Plovers were flying about the island in 
the daytime, mod. N.E. gale, sleet. Autumn: Sept. 19th, at 
Skerries, two remained till evening. At Allonby, Oct. 20th, 
Golden Plovers in flocks. At Nash, Dec. 10th, fifty to sixty 
Plovers passed W. at 2 p.m., light N.E. breeze, mist. In 
January, 1882, at St. Tudwal's, two alighted on the island to 
rest, one flew away with difficulty to W., mod. W. gale. On 7th, 
at Nash, three Plovers killed, 4 a.m., strong N. breeze, showers 
of hail. 

Grey Plover, Squatarola helvetica, Linn. — At Allonby, Nov. 
7th, three Grey Plovers seen, one shot, strong S.W. breeze. 

Ring Plover, ^gialitis hiaticula, Linn. — At Air, March 29th, 
forty Ring Plovers at noon, gentle W.N.W. breeze, clear. 

Dotterel. — At Bideford, in September, hundreds. (Would 
this be the Ringed Dotterel ?). 

Lapwing, Vanellus vulgaris, Bechst. — Spring : At Nash, Jan. 
3rd, large flocks passed W., and on 6th N.W., mod. E. breeze. 
On 10th, Plovers and Peewits passed S.W., gentle N.E. breeze; 
and on 11th, flocks (with Starlings) passed N.W., light breeze, 
mist. At Scilly, Jan. 10th, 13th, and 25th, large flocks of 
Lapwings and Plovers, mod. E. and N.N.E. breezes. At Seven- 
stones, on 11th, large flocks flying W., gentle W.N.W. breeze, 
hazy. At Godrevy, on 14th, Lapwings, Starlings, and Thrushes 
at 4 p.m., fresh E.S.E. breeze, clear. On 15th, at Skerries, 
several were seen flying round the lantern at midnight, strong 
S.S.W^ breeze, gloomy. At Scilly, Feb. 22nd, 9 a.m.. Lapwings 
with Plovers, Starlings, and Curlews, strong E.N.E. breeze, mist. 
Autumn : Aug. 30th, at Air, a flock hovering about in the 
morning. This is the only notice from any station till Oct. 1st, 
when, at Allonby, large flocks. On 16th, at Nash, two Peewits 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 71 

and a few Starlings passed 8.W., gentle E. breeze, mist. At 
Allonby, Nov. 14th, several flocks coming from the north, flying 
S., strong S.W. breeze, rain. So on 18th, with gentle E. breeze, 
frost. At Morecambe, on Nov. 10th, at 11.30, a flock passed, 
flying S.E., fresh W. breeze. On Dec. 12th, at Milford, a con- 
siderable number (probably over 200) seen near, evidently on 
flight, were following .a leader from the way they flew, light N. 
breeze, fine sharp frost. On Dec. 16th, at Nash, 1000 or more 
Lapwings passed W. at 1 p.m., light N.E. breeze, mist. At 
Menai, Peewits all the year round (but is no increase and decrease 
of their numbers observable ?). 

Turnstone, Strepsilas interpres, Linn. — At Allonby, Nov. 28th, 
small flocks of about a dozen Turnstones noticed on the shore, 
gentle S.W. breeze, clear. 

Oystercatcher, Hcematopus ostralegus, Linn. — On June 7th 
and 8th, at Nash, twenty Curlews and Sea-pies passed N., mod. 
N. to N.W. breeze. At Bideford, Sept. 17th, hundreds of Sea- 
pies visit the mussel-beds all the year with Curlews, Gulls, and 
Stints. On Oct. 6th, at Air, several flocks passed E. at different 
times of the day, mod. N.N.E. breeze. On 20th, at Allonby, 
flocks. At Skerries tlaey are said to remain all the year. (But 
do all remain all the year ? What about the young ? Is there 
no movement noticeable at any time of the year ? 

Woodcock, Scolopax rusticula, Linn. ; Snipe, Gallinago ccslestis, 
Frenzel. — At Bardsey, Jan. 14th, two passed W. at noon, fresh 
E. breeze, mist ; on 20th one struck the lantern. At Nash, Jan. 
5th, four Snipe passed S.W. at 3 p.m., fresh E.N.E. breeze, 
mist. On Oct. 27th, at Skerries, a Woodcock killed soon after 
midnight, fresh S.S.E. breeze. At Nash, Nov. 2nd, two Snipe 
passed E., mod. E. breeze, rain. On Dec. 21st, at Skerries, a 
Woodcock killed at midnight, mod. W.N.W. gale ; and on Dec. 
29th, at Nash, four Snipe passed S.W., light S.W. breeze, mist. 

Stint, Tringa (?) ; Godwit, Limosa (?). — Sept. 17th, at 
Bideford, hundreds of Stints with Sea-pies, &c., between half-ebb 
and half-flood. At Allonby, Nov. 8th, a large flock of Stints and 
Godwits wheeling about. 

Sanderling, Calidris arenaria, Linn. — At Godrevy, Dec. 20th, 
and 21st, about 11 a.m., mod. S. and W. by S. breezes, a flock 
passed W. ; and on 25th, at 12.30 a.m., two- Sanderlings struck 
and one was killed, fresh S.W. breeze, mist. 



72 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Curlew, Numenius arquata, Linn. — Spring : At Scilly, from 
Jan. 13th to 25th, large flocks, with Lapwings, &c. On 16th, at 
Skerries, an unusual number seen all day, mod. breeze, mist. 
On 22nd Feb. at Scilly, Starlings and Curlews, E.N.E., strong 
breeze ; and from May t© September they are reported as occa- 
sionally seen. At Nash, June 7th and 8th, twenty Curlews and 
Seapies passed N. from 6 a.m. to 3 p.m., mod. N. and N.W. 
breeze, rain. On 24th to 28th large numbers of Curlews and 
Seapies passed S.W. from sunrise to 1 p.m., mod. N.W. to S. 
breeze, rain. On July 11th twelve to fifteen Curlews passed S. 
9 a.m., fresh W.. breeze, fine. At Air, July 18th, 9.15 p.m., 
large quantities passed E., light W.N.W. breeze, rain. Autumn : 
At Morecambe, first instance, Sept. 18th, one flying about the 
ship, followed by a Skua ; and on 25th, two flying S.S.E., gentle 
N.W. breeze. At Menai they are mentioned as being more 
plentiful in August and September ; and at Bideford, in Septem- 
ber, hundreds at the mussel-beds with Oystercatchers, &c. At 
Nash, Oct. 6th, eight passed N.W. at 1.30 p.m., light E. breeze. 
At Morecambe, on 19th, three passed S.W., strong S.E. gale. 
And at Skerries, on 18th, Curlews flying about the island all day, 
mod. S.E. breeze ; on 23rd they were seen all day, light E.S.E. 
breeze, clear. At Usk, throughout the winter, large flocks seen 
on the sands when tide in, and these remained about till March, 
3882. 

Arctic Tern, Sterna macrura, Naum. ; Lesser Tern, S. minuta, 
Linn. — At Nash, June 24th to 28th, a large number of Sea 
Swallows (with Curlews) passed S.W. from sunrise to 1 p.m., 
mod. N.W. to S. breeze, rain. At Skerries, May 1st to September, 
innumerable quantities of Arctic Terns or Sea Swallows (come to 
breed, leaving when young able to fly). At Bideford, Sept. 17th, 
a Sea Swallow, 10 p.m., strucTi the lantern, and was taken alive, 
fresh S. breeze, mist. On Sept. 27th, at Morecambe, three 
Lesser Terns passed with two Titlarks, flying N.N.W., gentle 
N.W. by N. breeze. 

Gull, Larus. — Spring : At Great Castle Head, in January up 
to 20th, Gulls flew by. At Bull Point, from 11th to 26th, Sea 
Gulls (grey), flying rather high, S.W., with mod. breeze from 
N.W. At Nash, on 9th, a small flock of Gulls passed N., 
11 a.m., light E.N.E. breeze. At Great Castle Head, March 
14th and 18th, four and six Gulls flying S.S.E. and S.W. 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 73 

Autumn : At Nash, on Aug. 30th, a large flock of Gulls passed 
N.W. at 7 a.m., gentle E.N.E. breeze. At South Stack Gulls 
are reported as remaming till Aug. 29th. At Bideford hundreds 
of Common Gulls seen in September. At Bull Point, on Sept. 
16th, a Black-backed Gull passed W.S.W., 10.15 a.m. ; on 17th, 
at Morecambe, continuous flocks of Gulls, Black-headed, Grey, 
and different species. Thence to Oct. 19th. Flocks of Common 
Gulls and different species are constantly recorded ; winds from 
N.N.E. to S.E. by S. (never directly E. or N., nor indeed N. of 
E.); greatest number Sept. 19th to 22nd inclusive. At Nash, 
Oct. 13th, a very large flock of Gulls and Crows seen inland from 
8 a.m. to 4 p.m., mod. W. breeze, very clear. The same on 
27th, gentle E.N.E. breeze, mist. A great number passsed up 
and down the Channel from August to October, about sunrise 
flying N. and at sunset S. At Allonby, Nov. 14th, it is '' noted for 
some time past a great quantity of Kittiwakes been on the coast." 
At Skerries also an unusual number of Kittiwakes this year ; a 
few Gulls all the year. At Usk large flocks of Gulls seen occa- 
sionally through the window. At Bardsey Gulls resident ; and at 
Menai always seen. 

Skua, Stercorarius catarrhacteSf Linn. — The only records from 
Morecambe on Sept. 18th, one following a flock of Gulls, and 
again on 19th and 20th ; several on 22nd, in vicinity all day ; 
23rd, a dozen going W., 1.30 p.m., gloomy and misty ; on 25th, 
29th, and 30th a good many seen. In October, one seen on 23rd 
chasing Gulls; on 8th, one going S., gentle E.N.E. breeze; the 
latest notice on 11th, a few chasing Gulls. 

Petrel, Procellaria pelagica, Linn. — On Sept. 23rd, at God- 
revy, one struck, 9.30 p.m. (not killed), mod. S.S.E. breeze, clear. 
At Morecambe, Nov. 22nd, a Stormy Petrel flying W., 2.30 p.m., 
mod. W. gale. At St. Tudwal's, Jan. 8th, 1882, four Stormy 
Petrels rested under lee of rocks, 3.30 p.m., mod. W. gale. 

Eazorbill, Alca torda, Linn. — From South Stack we hear 
Razorbills left after breeding in the beginning of August, At St. 
Bees the beginning of this year (1882), a bird was picked up dead 
on the shore, which, from the description and a sketch made by 
Mr. Pizey, P.K., I identified as a Razorbill. 

Guillemot, Lojiivia troile, Linn. — At South Stack they are 
mentioned in same note as Razorbills as leaving in beginning of 
August. At Holyhead, Sept. 1st, large flocks of Guillemots and 



74 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

Puffins, fresh N.E. breeze, clear. At Milforcl, on same date, it 
is noted that "several during the past week struck the lantern 
windows at night ; they annually do so at this time and no other." 
At Morecambe, Sept. 20th, a great number of Divers (? Guille- 
mots), with Gulls and Skuas, and so to 26th, when a few Divers 
throughout the day. At Hartland Point diving birds were 
observed near the shore in January, 1882. At Skerries Guille- 
mots and Puffins are reported as remaining nearly the year 
round. (But if not all the year, when do they leave and when 
return ? Could this be noticed for next j^ear's report ?) 

Puffin, Fratercida arcticd, Linn. — At Holj^head, Sept. 1st, 
large flocks with Guillemots. At Morecambe, Sept. 28th, small 
flocks of Gulls and Puffins continuous, and, on Oct. 1st to 28rd, 
flocks with Gulls seen in vicinity. 

Birds unknown. — At Hartland Point, Oct. 27th, grey bird at 
midnight struck the lantern, fresh E. breeze. At Bardsey Mr. 
Bowen says grey birds, &c., are resident. Are Grey Crows 
meant ? At Air, Oct. 29th, flocks of birds unknown passed before 
daylight, mod. N.E. breeze. At Scilly, Oct. 18th, a few migrants 
later part of the month. At Morecambe, Oct. 20th, small flocks 
of small birds going E.S.E., 8.30 a.m., strong S.E. by E. breeze, 
clear, a little misty. 

Additional Remarks. 

Holyhead, Menai, and St. Bees are reported as unfavourable 
stations for observation. From Bull Point Mr. Knott writes : — 
" Very few birds to be seen. It is a north aspect; more to be 
seen with a south aspect." And from Great Castle Head Mr. 
Spicer writes : — ** This being an inland lighthouse there is 
scarcely a bird to be seen for days, and then by chance j^ou might 
see some away in the fields." 

Most of the stations report scarcity in comparison with other 
years, as South Stack, Lundy, Caldy^ Usk, Burnham, and Trevose 
Head ; the decrease appears to be ascribed "to the mildness of the 
season. Whether this be the real or the main cause of a like 
scarcity or not from the following stations may be an open 
question ; but I give the opinion of the observers, and they do 
not speak of it as the record o'f this year's observations alone, 
viz., Longships, from which Mr. Jones writes : — " Very few cases 
of birds coming against our lantern since (of late years) the 



WEST COAST OF ENGLAND. 75 

light is red towards the shore." From Burnham it is reported 
** Birds very rarely strike, the lantern glass being only eight feet by 
four feet." And from Skerries report I extract the following : — 
** There is a small quantity of birds in comparison with years 
prior to introduction of fog-horn (see also Kep. 1880, p. 119). 
In thick and foggy weather during November and February great 
quantities were always seen, chiefly Starlings, with Blackbirds, 
Thrushes, Wheatears, Larks, &c. On one occasion I saw our 
lantern gallery full, and at the base of the tower the quantity 
killed necessitated the use next morning of the wheelbarrow to 
remove them to the garden for manure. On one occasion a 
monster pie, made by workmen emploj^ed here, contained two 
hundred Larks, besides other smaller birds. But since the fog- 
horn has been sounded in thick weather birds coming to the light 
have been few, though many seen and heard in the air." — 
H. Knott. 

From the same station Mr. Garret, P.K., writes : — " These 
birds (Sea Swallows, which breed on the island) seem to take no 
notice of the fog-horn, while others, such as Starlings, Black- 
birds, Thrushes, Larks, &c., keep off while the horn is sounding, 
so that very few are seen round the lantern now, while formerly, 
in thick or misty weather during February and November, the 
lantern-gallery would be full of birds ; each on striking would 
drop into the gallery and remain till daylight, when, if not too 
much injured, they would fly ; but with strong winds a great 
number, chiefly Starlings, would be killed." 

It is- easy to believe that the hideous sound of a fog-horn, till 
the birds get used to it, will keep them at a distance. That birds 
recognise landmarks cannot, I think, be doubted, and possibly a 
complete change in colour of a light they have grown accustomed 
to may for a time make them suspicious of it. I think that if a 
light be placed in a new, and not altogether unfavourable, situa- 
tion, birds will be attracted to it, because, though not yet accus- 
tomed to see it in that spot, they will recognise it as a resting- 
place and sign of land. From some light-keepers I have heard 
that years ago (the lighthouse then not long erected) the slaughter 
among birds was much greater than now. Of course the nature 
of the season would partly account for this, but I think also that 
the unaccustomed light might attract many a weary wanderer to 
an untimely death. That birds protit by experience cannot, I 



76 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

think, be doubted, and I expect that the unrestrained destruction 
of them along a particular route will gradually effect a change in 
their ways. I believe that the scarcity now for some years 
generally noticed may be due in a measure to the ruthless de- 
struction met with at certain points on the Continent in their line 
of annual flight. 

Fresh instances are constantly occurring which show the 
relation between the movements of birds and the state of the 
weather. In connection with this point I quote the words of 
Mr. Nicholas, keeper at Nash E., who writes: — ''I've noticed 
whenever there is a lot of Gulls and Crows inland, it indicates a 
gale. I first noticed this Oct. 13th ; on 14th there was a whole 
gale. I have since that date observed the same thing before 
every gale." 

The prevailing winds on this coast were : — From August to 
Sept. 17th, easterly ; thence, to Sept. 29th, gentle to mod. W. ; 
thence, to Oct. 8th, E., viz., mod. S.E. and E. to 5th, then with 
more or less of N. On and after 9th, W. till 14th, with touch of 
N. and strong; on 16th a whole gale, E., thence, to 24th, S.E., 
fctrong breezes ; after which, to the end of the month, E. and 
N.E. 

Birds have not been noticed in such large flocks as last year, 
and there have been but faint traces of rushes. No rare birds 
are reported. 

The most decided and general movement took place between 
Oct. 16th and 27th ; after October, except among the Anatidce, 
the occurrences being very scarce. The chief occurrences in 
September were Wrens, Wagtails, Swallows, and Finches ; and 
in October Starlings, Sky Larks, and the Turdidce. 

In the autumnal migratioii the difference in date of arrival, 
as compared with last year, may be worth marking. So far as 
our records show the Redwing was first noticed a month later, 
the Blackbird six weeks, and Thrush three weeks, the Sky Lark 
a month, Goldcrest twelve days, Wheatear and Greenfinch five 
days, the Golden Plover fourteen days. The following are re- 
corded earlier : the Meadow Pipit by two weeks. Swallow seven- 
teen days, Starling nineteen days, Wagtail, Chaffinch, and Linnet 
a few days. Of the Anatidce, Duclvs are noticed a few days earlier, 
Geese considerably later. 

It is difficult to say anything positive as to direction of flight, 



WEST COAST OP ENGLAND. 77 

which is too seldom noted ; in case of the Turdidce scarcely at all. 
This in part is owing to many of the instances occurring at night 
in the dark. So far as I can make out all birds here follow the 
coast line very clearly. The main direction, to judge from the 
scant records in September, was southerly ; in October one or two 
directly E. ; the rest E., with more or less of N. With a few 
marked exceptions the movement has in almost every species 
been noticed at the southerly stations first, and appears gradually 
to have extended N. Whether this be accidental or a rule can 
only be decided by continued and careful observations from all 
the stations. Of the Anatidce and water-birds the most frequent 
records are in October, and the direction S.W. and S., sometimes 
S.E.; but between Dec. 2nd to 11th, at Morecambe Bay, they 
passed N.W. After 11th to end of December S.W. 

The best filled returns have this year been received from 
Morecambe Bay, Skerries, and Nash E. These observers have 
also given the fullest information ; Nash especially in showing 
the direction of flight, a matter concerning which information is 
very desirable. 

As to the circumstances under which the movement takes 
place, as affecting the flight or the striking of birds, &c., the 
reports bear out the conclusions previously expressed. Last year 
Mr. Bowen (Bardsey) referred to flight of birds before the wind 
(Kep., p. 119) ; Mr. Knott now writes from Skerries, " Many 
birds are killed in strong winds, as they then fly with greater 
force, and almost invariably in the same direction as the wind." 
Still the evidence shows that birds, as a rule, migrate with the 
.wind on the shoulder, and not strong. When they do fly with 
the wind, and the wind strong, it is probably because they have 
been taken by surprise, and are unable to save themselves. 



78 



IRISH COAST: AUTUMN. 

Printed schedules were forwarded to forty light- stations 
around the coast. Thirty stations replied by returning the 
schedules wholly or partially filled with daily entries, or by 
sending letters remarking on the absence of migratory birds or 
on their general movements. 

To the Commissioners of Irish Lights we are indebted for 
the facilities afforded us in conducting this enquiry. We have to 
thank Captain Boxer, R.N., Inspector of Irish Lights, for his 
friendly co-operation — his knowledge of the coast and intimate 
aquaintance with the light stations rendered his advice and 
assistance especially valuable. 

On the whole the returns have been as satisfactory as was 
anticipated; some of the schedules have been carefully filled, 
and although others contain very few entries, this is to be 
accounted for rather by the absence of migratory birds than by 
any unwillingness on the part of the light-keepers to assist us. 
When we remember their many and various duties, and that the 
observations are entirely voluntary, thera is reason to be well 
contented with the first attempt of this kind to collect information 
on the Irish coast ; and we return our sincere thanks to all the 
lighthouse-keepers who have given their time and attention to 
the subject. 

The entries in all the schedules have been collected under 
each day of the month as they occur ; this method of arrange- 
ment shows the movements of all birds as entered on each 
day, and the number of observations on that day. The effect 
of the weather on the migratory movement can thus be 
studied, and the general direction of flight of the various species 
compared. 

The daily weather-charts show last winter to have been 
exceptional in the number and violence of the cyclonic dis- 
turbances, which moved generally in a north-easterly direction 
along our west coasts ; but the entries in the schedules 



IRISH COAST. 79 

are too few to generalise or draw any conclusions regarding 
the influence of the successive storms on the migratory move- 
ment. 

A table showing the days on which entries were made in the 
schedules has been drawn up in, the hope that, if the extent of 
the migratory movement on any particular day varied with the 
number of entries, some inference could be drawn ; but here also 
generalisation is premature. 

In a few returns names are given to birds from which it is 
not easy to identify the species, and occasionally there is reason 
to fear one species has been mistaken for another. In all cases, 
hoicever, the name entered in tlie scliedide has been allowed to stand 
without comment. 

The general remarks of the light-keepers are given con- 
secutively, and as contributions to the Ornithology of the light- 
houses they are interesting. 

A table showing the number of birds striking each lantern, 
the number of daily entries in each return, the number of species 
of birds mentioned in each schedule in the daily entries, the 
height of each lantern above high-water mark, and its approx- 
imate distance from the mainland is given. 

Whatever results are obtained from this investigation, they 
will only be arrived at by patiently collecting observations for 
some years. If the light-keepers continue to assist us, this can 
readily be done — without their co-operation annually we are 
helpless. 

Alexander G. More. 
Richard M. Barrington. 



80 



REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



Names of Stations to which Schedules were sent in the 

Autumn of 1881. 

Birds No. of 

No. and name of light-station, and striking daily 

situation on coast. lantern, entries 

1. Fastnet, Co. Cork 9 10 

2. Galley Head, do. ..^ — 6 

3. Old Head, Kinsale, do 5 2 

4. Mine Head, Waterford — 3 

5. Coningbeg Lt.-ship, Wexford 2 3 

6. Barrels Rock, do 1 26 

7. Tuskar, do niSfers 12 

8. ArklowSth. Lt.-ship, Wicklow — 17 

9. Wicklow Head, do No reply. 

10. Kish Bank Lt.-ship, Dublin .. — 18 

11. Howth Baily, do — 12 

12. Rockabill, do 13 8 

13. Copeland Island, Down — 18 

14. Maidens, Antrim No reply. 

15. Rathlin, do — 35 

16. Innishtr ahull, Donegal 3 7 

17. Dunree Head, do — — 

18. Lough Swilly, do No reply. 

19. Tory Island, do — 1 

20. Arranmore, do — 16 

21. Rathlin O'Birne, do 1 17 

22. Killybegs, do No reply. 

23. Oyster Island, N., SHgo — 15 

24. Broadhaven, Mayo — 18 

25. Eagle Island E., do — — 

26. Eagle Island W., do — — 

27. Blackrock, do Numbers — 

28. Blacksod Point, do No reply. 

29. Clare Island, do — 17 

30. Slyne Head N., Galway 12 12 

31. Slyne Head S., do 4 5 

32. Arran Island N., do — 17 

33. Straw Island, do No reply. 

34. Arran Island S., do 6 7 

35. Loop Head, Clare No reply. 

36. Samphire Island, Kerry Do. 

37. Tearaght, do Do. 

38. Valentia, do — — 

39. Skelligs, do — — 

40. Calf Rock, Cork Destroyed 



No. of 

species in 

entnes. 


Height of lan- 
tern above 
sea-level. 


MUes 

from 1 
shore. 


5 


148 ft. 


8 


4 


174 




2 


236 




4 


285 


— 


2 


38 


10 


11 


? 


4 


18 


101 


7 


4 


39 


7 


5 


36 


7 


6 


134 




10 


148 


5 


24 


131 


3 


11 


243 


6 


12 


181 


6 




150 




1 


130 


9 


2 


233 


5 


6 


116 


2 


5 


40 


1 


3 


87 






220 


2 




220 


2 




283 


9 


7 


341 


4 


9 


115 


8 


5 


104 


3 


4 


115 


9 



110 



— 54 — 

— 175 9 

in storm, Nov. 188L 



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82 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 



General Eemarks of Light-Keepers. 

1. Fastnet. — "Very few birds came on or passed the rock 
this winter. It must be in consequence of bad weather on this 
coast. No sea birds build nests near this station." — John 
Tottenham. 

2. Galleif Read. — " This is one of the worst stations I have 
been at for birds ; in fact we think it rare to see any only those 
that are natives of the place. This year they are very scarce. 
The Starling has not come down to us from the mountains yet." 
— John Whelan. 

3. Old Head, Kinsale. — *' No birds, only the above (i. e., five 
Golden-crested Wrens on Oct. 24th, and several flocks of Lap- 
wings on Dec. 12th) have appeared in the vicinity this season. 
The Gannet usually proceeds to the eastward in August and 
September, and flies westward from January to March. The 
Guillemots, Eazorbills, Cormorants, Kittiwake, and Herring Gulls 
all arrive here to breed in March, and depart in August and Sep- 
tember." — John Dunleary. 

4. Mine Head, — " Birds of all descriptions were not so scarce 
at this station for the last seven years as during the year 1881." 
— Joseph Hammond. 

5. Coningheg Light-ship. — "There were no birds about the 
station in the month of December, or up to- the 20th of January, 
with the exception of a few Sea Gulls each day." — Patrick 
Cullen. 

6. Barrels Bock Light-ship. — General remarks none, but a 
full schedule of daily entries. — Joseph Oxford. 

7. Tuskar. — General remarks^ none. A full schedule. — Eichard 
Hamilton. 

8. Arkloiv, South, Light-ship. — General remarks, none. A full 
schedule.— William Shea. 

9. Wicklow Head. — No reply. 

10. Kislt Bank Light-ship. — " Less birds passed the station 
this winter than ever. No birds have been killed by striking our 
lantern for some years." — William Daly. 

11. Howth Baily. — General reiliarks, none. — Joseph Brownell. 
.12. Bockahill. — "Sept. Ist. Eeceived schedule; a great 

number of different species -of Gulls in vicinity of Eock, and on 



IRISH COAST. 83 

smaller rock called the Bill, frora about the second week in 
August to the third week in September, when they almost entirely 
disappeared. Cannot name the species ; there were also Puffins, 
and occasionally two or three Gannets. This is an annual 
occurrence, but not always at the same time. Birds have been 
unusually scarce this season. Since stormy weather set in early 
in November no birds have been about the Kock, except a few 
Sand Larks, and a few Gulls, Puffins, and Cormorants flying 
abont this and the smaller rock during a storm." — William 
Dunne. 

13. Copeland Island. — " There were no birds struck the light 
this winter owing to the strong gales which prevailed." — Henry 
Williams. 

14. The Maidens. — No reply. 

15. Rathlin Island. — A second schedule partly filled. Ke- 
mark : — " The Sea Parrot begins to arrive for the purpose of 
cleaning out its nest on March 17th, and then goes away until 
the 1st of April, when the different species of sea birds commence 
to arrive for the season. They begin to go away about 1st of 
August, and finally disappear by the end of the month." — John 
A. Murray. 

16. Innishtr ahull. — " September, Gannet daily, S a.m. to 
4 p.m. Curlew daily. The ' Grey ' Gull, ' Little ' Gull, Black- 
backed or Eoyal Gull, Common Gull, and Grey Crow remain on 
the island all the year. Gulls nidify on the rock called Torr near 
the island ; Grey Crows nidify on the island. In November 
flocks of twelve to twenty Starlings daily. Owing to this 
winter being very stormy little birds of any sort visited the 
island. During the months of January and February, 1881, 
a great number of Woodcock and Snipe were killed here." — W. 
H. James. 

17. Dunree Head. — Daily entry, none. Eemark : — '' I beg 
to state there are no migrations of birds to be seen at this station, 
except Cormorants ; they remain the year, round, also a small 
number of Sea Gulls. No other birds resort or pass this station." 
— John Stapleton. 

18. Lough Sivilly. — No reply. • 

19. Tory Island. — " The Petrel, Eaven, Common Sandpiper, 
Common Guillemot, Black Guillemot, Eazorbill, Diver, Puffin, 
Cormorant, Kittiwake, Common Gull, Herring Gull breed on the 



84 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

east end of the island, and are annually decreasing. Breed in 
larger numbers on Horn Head. Have not observed birds 
migrating. No birds struck tlie lantern tliis winter. Have not 
observed the Gannet or other sea birds taking a continuous 
flight." — Thomas Sweeney. 

20. Arranmore. — "Barnacle Geese generally commence to 
come from the noiih on the loth or 16th of October in flocks 
averaging four to eighty, that being the most counted in one 
flock. They pass at intervals of from two to twelve hours both 
day and night until the end of the month, when they cease. 
They commence to appear again on the lOtli or 12th of April, 
coming from south, but in larger flocks and shorter intervals. 
No other species but Gannet and Barnacle resort this locality." 
— John Walsh. 

21. Rathlin O'Birne. — " Sky Larks, Titlarks, and Stonechats 
continued arriving in numbers of two, four, and six until about 
the 10th of May. At that time there were about twenty of each 
species on the island. They nidificated on the island. By the 
10th of September the Sky Larks had departed ; by the 20th of 
October th^ Titlarks had departed ; by the 16th of November the 
Stonechats had departed. None of these species were observed 
after that date until Dec. 22nd, when five or six Titlarks returned, 
and are here still. On June the 3rd twelve to fourteen Common 
Terns alighted on a small island outside lighthouse, nidificated, 
and left about Aug. 1st. Sea Gulls nidificated on small island 
above referred to, and one pair of ' sepoys ' on this island. In 
July several pairs of Skua Gulls passed, and some remained in 
vicinity. Curlew frequent this island from 1st of !May until 1st 
of October. They come at night time, and leave the following 
day generally. Unless with frost}' and snowy weather, Starlings, 
Snipes, Woodcocks, Blackbirds^ or Thrushes do not visit. Sand- 
pipers and Jack Curlew are about the shores all the year round. 
No Gannets seen since Nov. 8th. Sea Gulls in vicinity all the 
year. Barnacle continue coming and departing until about 
Feb. 15th. No Starling or Snipe visited since last winter." — 
Joseph Hill. 

22. KilUhcgs. — No reply. 

23. Oyster Island, Nortli. — " From the middle of October to 
the last week in November several large flocks of Gulls were to 
be seen in the bay after herrings, principally of the Kittiwake 



IRISH COAST. 85 

species, with a few large Grey Gulls and an occasional Eoyal or 
Black-backed Gull ; also large flocks of Puffins, which all left 
when the herrings disappeared. Large flocks of Barnacle and 
Wigeon arrive in this locality early in October, and remain 
until latter end of March, passing to and fro to feeding-ground 
according to tide, besides those going further south." — John 
Young. 

24. Broadhaven. — "The above (i.e., Barnacle, "Wild Geese, 
Wild Duck, and Solan Geese) are the only description of birds 
seen in the locality ; they are generally passing inland, and at 
times alight near the lighthouse to feed on the swampy land. 
No Sea Gulls build near this station, but a few come into the 
harbour in the summer months after the fry of fish." — Joseph 
Williams. 

25. Eagle Island, East. — No entry in schedule. Kemark : — 
" Up to the present no birds are visible, only on occasions when 
fish are seen on the surface of the water, and these are Gannets 
and large-sized Gulls. I have not noticed any kind of birds pass 
or rest at this station in their flight of migration." — Kobert 
Eedmond. 

26. Eagle Island, West. — No entry in schedule. Eemark : — 
** This island is very small, and the adjacent shores being all bog 
for miles inland very few birds alight on island. The Stone- 
chatter is to be seen here all the year round. In May the sea- 
fowl come round the island in great numbers ; as a rule they go 
gradually to the south, following shoals of fish, and very few are 
to be seen during the winter months. To-day (Jan. 15th, 1882) 
I have seen a few Gannets and Sea Gulls flying about. No birds 
have struck the lantern since my. arrival at this station eighteen 
months since." — Mathew Healy. 

27. Black Rock (Mayo). — No daily entry, but schedule filled 
by following general remarks : — " Gannets seen passing south all 
the year round, most seen in calm weather, ten to twenty in each 
flight. Puffins from April 15th to Aug. 15th ; build on the Kock. 
Cormorants here all the year round ; build on the Kock. Kitti- 
wake Gulls build on an island three miles away; also Eoyal 
Gulls. Small Gulls, eommonly called ' Wheelons,' build on the 
Eock. Barnacles here from October to March. Two ' Falcon 
Hawks ' build on an island three miles away ; here all the j^ear 
round. Two ' Sparrowhawks ' seen in the mornings. Eooks, in 



86 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

flocks of 100 to 500, mostly seen in snow and frosty weather. 
Starlings from September to March, morning and evening, 1000 
to 5000 in a flock, seen with all winds, mostly in frosty weather ; 
hundreds killed against lantern. • ' Missel Thrushes ' from Novem- 
ber to March, 50 to 100 in each flock, most in frosty w^eather ; 
seen at all hours ; a large number killed. Snipe from November 
to March in flocks of two to four, in frost and snow ; some 
killed. Woodcocks from November to March in frost and snow ; 
some killed. Curlews, twenty to thirty in a flock,, from daylight 
till dark ; seen all the year round. Wrens seen very seldom in 
the spring. Blackbirds only seen in frosty weather ; some killed 
by striking lantern. ' Titmouses ' seen in all weathers ; build 
on the Eock. Stormy Petrels from March to September, at all 
hours of the night ; build on the Rock. Larks in flocks of 100 
to 300, only seen in frosty weather ; a large number killed by 
striking glass. I have seen some strange birds rest here on their 
passage to the mainland, but do not know their names. I have 
seen a Hoopoe on one occasion rest here. There has been 
a species of Sea Gull of a deep cream-colour on the coast last 
August, supposed to be a North American bird. I have seen 
large flights of Eooks rest here after coming in from the sea in 
a S.W. direction, which seemed so much fatigued that they would 
fall over after resting, and remain to be caught." — Martin 
Kennedy. 

28. Blacksod Point. — No reply. 

29. Clare Island. — " The following varieties of birds build 
their nests round the cliffs here ; they come on the 1st of April 
and leave about the 20th of August : — Guillemots, Eazorbills, 
Puffins, Kittiwakes." — James Eeilly. 

30. Slyne Head (North). — "The 'Purr' is the only sea-bird 
that breeds near this station." They arrive in April and depart 
in August. The arrival of birds to this island during the past 
autumn and winter was very few in comparison with other years, 
and the only reason I can assign for it is that we had very little 
snow. During the snow of 1880 we had large flocks of Star- 
lings, Thrushes, and Blackbirds arriving daily from the east." — 
John Gillan. 

31. Slyne Head {South). — No general remarks. Schedule 
partly fihed. — William Callaghan. 

32. Arran Island, North. — ** The only birds seen in the 



IRISH COAST. 87 

vicinity of this station since July are the Gannet, the Koyal or 
Black-backed Gull, and the Common Gull. They do not breed 
on this island, as it is low and flat. The Gulls breed on the cliffs 
of the large island of Arran and cliffs of the Co. Clare. Do not 
know dates of arrival or departure. The Gannets and Gulls that 
visit this station come from the direction of the Co. Clare, remain 
during the day, and return in the evening. No flocks seen after 
Nov. 7th."— John Kelly. 

33. Straiv Island. — No reply. 

34. Arran Island, South. — "Have never known less birds 
strike the lantern." — Francis Kyan. 

35. Loop Head. — No reply. 

36. Samphire Island. — No reply. 

37. Tearaght. — No reply. 

38. Valentia. — " I have been at this station 4 J years, and 
have never seen any birds migrating or resorting this locality 
except sea-birds, such as Gannet, Puffin, Cormorants, &c. They 
are not very numerous, and seldom visit except from August to 
the end of October. Very few land-birds visit here, except in 
severe frosts and snow in winter ; then the Starling, Thrush, 
Blackbird, Lark, &c., come down from the mountains. Hundreds 
of Starlings, Thrushes, and Curlews died last January in this 
locality by severe frost and snow. There are not any birds. 
strike this lantern. Very few strike land-lights, but on the South 
Maiden lighthouse I have seen hundreds of Starlings, Thrushes, 
and Blackbirds strike and kill themselves in one night, and 
frequently Snipe and Woodcock. On the Tuskar Eock lighthouse 
I have counted twelve hundred killed in one night, and hundreds 
more fell into the sea that we did not get. At Rockabill light- 
house also I have got great numbers killed, and frequently four 
and six Teal or small duck, and Snipe and Woodcock. I have 
not seen since I came to this station one Wild Duck or Goose, 
nor any flock of migrating birds. I have kept a good look-out 
for the last two months, and have not seen any birds except a 
few Gannets and Sea Gulls." — Thomas McKenna. 

39. Skelligs.'- — No entry in schedule. Remark : — " The only 
birds observed at present in this locality are a few Gannets and 
Sea Gulls occasionally." — Henry Gardiner. 

40. Calf Rock. No reply. Destroyed by storm in Nov., 1881. 



88 irish coast. 

Daily Entries in Schedules, Sept., 1881, to Jan., 1882. 

september. 

1st. — Eathlin Island, eight}' Swallows, 10 a.m., wind light 
S.E., clear; hovered about. Twenty-six Gannets, 11.30 a.m., 
going E. 

^nd. — Eathlin Island, eight Gannets, 5.30 a.m., wind light 
E., clear, going E. Sh^ne Head South, continuous flocks 
of Gannets, 5 a.m. to 6 p.m., wind light S.E., clear, came from 
S.W. ; remained for three months. Arran Island North, about 
200 Gulls, 5 a.m. to 6 p.m., wind N.E., calm, clear. 

Srd. — Galley Head, Teal Duck, number not known, 1 a.m., 
flying N.E., wind N.E. fresh breeze, clear. Ai'klow South Lt.-ship, 
nine Gannets, 8.15 a.m., wind light E.N.E., gloomy, passing N.E. 
Eathlin Island, 200 Starlings, 10.25 a.m., wind light S.E., 
cloudy, old bii'ds remained on island. Clare Island, large flock 
of Grey Linnets, 6 a.m., wind light E., clear, going S.E. Arran 
Island North, 200 Gulls difierent species all day, wind light S.E. 

4:th. — Arklow South Lt.-ship, two Gannets, 1.10 p.m., wind 
light E.N.E., cloudy, passing N.E. Eathlin Island, seven Gan- 
nets, 12 noon, wind strong N.E., misty, going E. 

5th. — Clare Island, large flock of Grey Linnets, 7 a.m., wind 
fresh E.N.E., blue sky, going S. Slyfie Head North, fifty 
Starlings, 10 p.m., wind fresh E., misty, three killed. 

6th. — No entry. 

7th. — Arklow South Lt.-ship, four Starlings, 10.15 a.m., wind 
light W., cloudy, passing inland N.W. Howth Daily, six 
Cormorants fl^'ing N., 11 a.rtu, wind light W., clear. Eathlin 
Island, forty Linnets, 11 a.m., wind light N.E., cloudy, going N. 
Arran Island North, twenty to thirty Gannets, 5 p.m., wind 
light N.W. 

Sth. — Barrels Eock Lt.-ship, five Gannets, 5.10 a.m., wind 
light N.N.W., clear, going ^\. ; four Gannets at 3 p.m., going W. 
Arklow South Lt.-ship, four Gannets, 7 a.m., wind very light 
N.W., clear, passing N.E. ; three Gannets, 9.50 a.m., going same 
direction. Arran Island North, {hirty to forty Gannets all day, 
wind Hght N.W. 

9tJi. — Barrels Eock Lt.-ship, flocks of Linnets and Gulls, 



IBISH COAST. 89 

12.50 p.m. to 3.50 p.m., wind light N.N.E., showery; Linnets 
going N.E., Gulls W. Arklow South Lt.-ship, five Gannets, 
5.15 a.m., wind fresh N.N.E., cloudy, going N. ; four Gannets, 
11.45 a.m., going N.E. 

10th. — Kish Bank Lt.-ship, two Chaffinches, 7 a.m., wind 
mod. N.E., gloomy. Copeland Island, four Herons, 10 a.m., 
wind N.E., clear, coming S. ; Starlings all day, breed here; 
Terns breed on Mew Island, come in May. Kathlin Island, one 
Curlew, 9.30 a.m., wind light S.E., rain. Clare Island, small 
flocks of Books, 2 p.m., wind light N., fine, going N.W. Arran 
Island South, thirty Starlings, 3.30 p.m., wind light N.E., clear, 
old birds going E. 

11th. — Barrels Bock Lt.-ship, flock of **grey" Gulls, 5.25 
a.m., wind light E.N.E., clear, going E. Kish Bank Lt.-ship, 
one Chaffinch alighted on ship, 11.15 a.m., wind light N., hazy. 
. IWi. — Tuskar, thirty Wrens, Titmice, and Goldcrests, 6 a.m., 
wind light N.E., overcast, gloomy. Clare Island, flock of Grey 
Linnets, 7 a.m., wind fresh E., cloudy, going S.E. Slyne Head 
North, ten Swallows, 9 a.m., wind light N., clear; a large 
number of Gannets, 1 p.m. Arran Island North, large flocks of 
Gulls, wind fresh N.E., clear; also on Sept. 13th. 

ISth. — Arklow South Lt.-ship, four Gannets, 7.45 a.m., wind 
very light N.W., gloomy, going N.E. 

14:th. — Galley Head, Duck, number not known, 3 a.m., wind 
W. strong breeze, clear, flying W. Arklow South Lt.-ship, two 
Gannets, 6 a.m., wind light N.E., cloudy, going N.E.; five 
Gannets, 8.25 a.m., going in same direction; three Titlarks, 
8.40 a.m., passing inland N.W. Copeland Island, thirteen 
Herring Gulls, 4 p.m., wind light N., clear; also six Gannets; 
both after fry and fish. 

15th. — Arklow South Lt.-ship, one flock of Titlarks, 7.40 
a.m., wind light N.N.E., clear, passing N.W. ; five Gannets, 
8 a.m., passing N.E. Howth Baily, continuous flocks of Gulls 
and Puffins flying N. and S., 8 a.m. to 6 p.m., wind light N.W., 
clear. Copeland Island, fifteen Lapwings, remained all day 
between Mew and Copeland Islands. Eathlin Island, forty Black 
Crows, 2 p.m., wind very strong S.W., cloudy, going S. 

16th. — Barrels Bock Lt.-ship, about thirty Swallows, 11 a.m., 
wind very light E.N.E., clear, going N.E. Arklow South 
Lt.-ship, six Gannets, 7.30 a.m., wind light N.E., cloudy, 

N 



90 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

passing N.E. Copeland Island, twenty-three Gannets, 4 p.m., 
wind light S.E., clear, coming from Ailsa Craig. 

17th. — Copeland Island, fourteen Grey Linnets, 3 p.m., wind 
light S.S.W., rain, remained some time. Oyster Island North, 
twenty Wigeon going S.E., 11 a.m., wind mod. S.E., clear. 

ISth. — Barrels Rock Lt.-ship, flock of Grey Gulls, 5.10 p.m., 
wind very light N.N.E., clear, going W. Tuskar, one Owl, 
8 a.m., wind light N., cloudy. Arklow South Lt.-ship, one flock 
of Swallows, 6.20 a.m., wind fresh N.E., gloomy, passing N.N.W. 
Innishtrahull, four Lapwings, 12 noon, wind light N., clear. 

Idtli. — Tuskar, about 1000 Gulls alighted 6 a.m., left 7 a.m., 
wind light S.W., cloudy, gloomy, appeared young ; 12.30 p.m., 
a large flock of Gulls going S. Arklow South Lt.-ship, five 
Gannets, 8 a.m., wind light W.S.W., cloudy, passing N.E.; four 
Swallows, 9.20 a.m., passing N.W. 

20th. — Oyster Island North, about 100 Barnacles, 9.30 a.m., 
wind strong S., clear, going S. Clare Island, large flock of 
Wild Ducks, 2 p.m., wind strong W., overcast, rain, going E. 
Slyne Head North, one Snipe, 3 a.m., wind fresh S., showers, 
killed. 

21s^.— Barrels Eock Lt.-ship, flock of ''grey" Gulls, 9.30 
a.m., wind light W.N.W., showery, going N. Tuskar, a large 
flock of Skua Gulls alighted 5 a.m., wind light N., overcast, rain, 
appeared old birds. Copeland Island, one young Corn Crake, 
wind strong E.S.E., "reared on Copeland Island." Rathlin 
O'Birne, about fifteen Gannets, 10 a.m., w^nd strong N., rain, 
remained in vicinity until Oct. 14th. 

22?if/. — Arklow South Lt.-ship, one flock of Swallows, 7.15 
a.m., wind very light N.W., clear, passing S.W. Copeland 
Island, Sept. 22nd to 26th, -between these dates Terns which 
come to breed on Mew Island all left. Slyne Head South, nine 
Curlews flew to N.E., wind fresh W.S.W., gloomy. 

23?tZ. — Arklow South Lt.-ship, one flock of Swallows, 6 a.m., 
wind very light E., gloomy, passing N.W. Howth Baily, eight 
Gannets flying S., 12.30 p.m., wind fresh S., clear. Rathlin 
O'Birne, continuous flocks of Pufiins, 10 a.m., wind light S.E., 
overcast, went southwards, continued passing until Oct. 1st. 

24th. — Rathlin O'Birne, continuous flocks of Sea Gulls arrived 
10 a.m., wind light S.E., overcast, came from N., remained in 
vicinity. 



IRISH COAST. 91 

25th. — Fastnet, small flocks of Starlings flying N.E. to land, 
2 p.m., wind light W., passing showers, two young ones struck 
lantern. Arklow South Lt.-ship, nine Gannets, 7 to 7.30 a.m., 
wind light W., clear, passing N.E.; six Swallows, 9.15 a.m., 
passing N.W. 

26//i. — Barrels Rock Lt.-ship, flocks of Grey Gulls, 3.10 p.m., 
wind light W.N.W., clear, going S. Clare Island, large flock 
of Puffins, 3 p.m., wind fresh S.S.W., cloudy, going W. Arran 
Island South, fifty Starlings, 8.15 a.m., wind fresh W.N.W., clear. 

21th. — Arklow South Lt.-ship, four Gannets, 8 a.m., wind 
light W.S.W., cloudy, passing S.W. 

28^/i. — Arklow South Lt.-ship, ten Gannets, 6.45 a.m., wind 
very light S.W., cloudy, passing N.E. Copeland Island, thirteen 
Black Crows, 10 a.m., wind light S.W., fine, going W. 

29//i. — Fastnet, two " Stone Chatters," 4 p.m., wind light S., 
misty, on rock all night, left in morning. Rathlin Island, thirty 
Gannets, 3 p.m., wind light S.E., clear, going N. 

dOth. — Tuskar, four Blackbirds, 10 a.m., wind fresh S., misty. 
Howth Baily, ten Cormorants flying W., 1.20 p.m., wind fresh 
S.W., gloomy. Oyster Island North, about eighty Barnacles, 
4.30 p.m., wind mod. E.S.E., clear, going S. 

OCTOBER. 

1st. — Barrels Eock Lt.-ship, flock of twenty-six Swallows, 
9.15 a.m., wind light S.S.W., clear, going S. Arklow South 
Lt.-ship, six Gannets, 7.20 a.m., wind light S., gloomy, passing 
S.W. 

2nd. — Fastnet, one '' Stone Chatter," 3 p.m., wind light S. 
Kish Bank Lt.-ship, three Gannets, 10 a.m., wind mod. S., 
clear. Howth Baily, continuous flocks of Gulls and Puffins 
flying S., 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., wind light S.W., clear. Copeland 
Island, twenty-nine Ducks on Mew Island all day, remained all 
the winter. Rathlin Island, sixty Black Crows, 5 p.m., wind 
strong S.E., misty, coming from N., seemed tired. Oyster 
Island North, about 150 Barnacles, 2 p.m., wind fresh S.E., 
clear, going S. Arran Island North, large flocks of Gannets and 
Gulls all day, wind fresh S.S.E., clear. 

drd. — Arklow South Lt.-ship, nineteen Gannets, 4.30 p.m., 
wind very light S.S.E., cloudy, passing S.W. Kish Bank 
Lt.-ship, five Wild Ducks, 10.30 a.m., flying W., clear. 



92 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

■ith. — No entry. 

5th. — Barrels Rock Lt.-ship, flock of White Gulls, 5 p.m., 
wind light W.N.W., clear, going S.E. Arklow South Lt.-ship, 
three Gannets, 10.15 a.m., wind light E., cloudy, passing S.W. 
Rathlin Island, forty Gannets, 3 p.m., wind light S.E., clear, 
going E. Slyne Head South, many flocks of Gannets from 
sunrise to sunset, wind very strong S.E., gloomy. 

6th. — Fastnet, one " Stone Chatter," 3.30 p.m., wind light 
S.E., gloomy. Clare Island, small flock of Pigeons, 1 p.m., 
wind fresh W., cloudy, going N. 

7^/i. — Slyne Head North, a large number of Gulls going S., 
4 p.m., wind light W., misty. 

Sth. — Barrels Rock Lt.-ship, flock of nine Gannets, 8 a.m., 
wind light N.N.W., clear, going W. ; flock of about seventeen 
Swallows, 2.30 p.m., wind light E., rain, going S. Copeland 
Island, five Black-backed Gulls all day, remained during winter. 
Oyster Island North, seventy Barnacles, 11 a.m., wind strong 
N.W., overcast, showery, going S. ; fifty Rooks, 2 p.m., wind 
same, going S.E. 

9th. — Barrels Rock Lt.-ship, eight Gannets, 3.30 p.m., wind 
fresh N.N.W., showery, going E. 

10th. — Ho^\i;h Baily, ten Grey Crows flying inland, 11.15 
a.m., wind strong W., clear. Rockabill, one Blackbird, 9 a.m., 
wind fresh S.W., clear, showery, male seen on the rock. Copeland 
Island, one Swallow, 10.30 a.m., wind light S.E., fog; twelve 
Greenfinches, 11 a.m., remained until fog cleared. Rathlin 
Island, sixty Linnets, 11 a.m., wind strong N.W., misty, going 
N. Tory Island, Barnacle, 10 a.m., wind mod. S.W., cloudy, 
coming from the east, flew round the island ; they frequent other 
islands near, but seldom alight on this island. Oyster Island 
North, several flocks of Barnacles, 9 a.m. to 2 p.m., wind strong 
N.W. to W., showery, going S. 

11th. — Fastnet, small flocks of lamd-birds, 8 a.m., wind fresh 
N.W., showers; two Titmice killed, flying S. on rock; four 
Chaffinches, 11 a.m., two killed, male birds. Innishtrahull, 
flocks of Barnacles, 8 a.m. to 6 p.m., wind strong N.W., hail- 
showers. 

12th. — Barrels Rock Lt.-ship, two Stormy Petrels, 12.30 p.m., 
wind strong W.N.W., cloudy; seldom seen at this station; 
remained about the ship all evening. Kish Bank Lt.-ship, two 



IRISH COAST. 93 

flocks of Ducks, 10.30 a.m., strong S.W. breeze, clear. Howth 
Baily, three Gannets flying N.E., 10.45 a.m., wind fresh W., 
clear. Innishtrahull, one Teal, 9 p.m., wind N.W., a hurricane, 
struck lantern. Eathlin O'Birne, four Barnacles, 11 p.m., wind 
very strong N.W., showery. Oyster Island North, 100 Barnacles, 
2.30 p.m., wind N.W., wild and showery. Arran Island North, 
large flocks of Gannets and Gulls all day, wind very strong 
N.W., rain. 

13^/i. — Barrels Kock Lt.-ship, two Sparrowhawks, 9.30 a.m., 
wind light N.N.E., clear, going N. ; seldom seen at this station. 
Arran Island North, large flocks of Gulls all day, wind very 
strong N.N.W., rain. 

14:th. — Kathlin O'Birne, one Martin killed against lantern, 
wind very strong N. Arran Island North, large flocks of different 
species of Gulls all day, wind very strong N.W., rain ; flock of 
Wild Geese, 8 p.m., came from S.W., going N. 

15th. — Arranmore, continuous flocks of Barnacles, 6 a.m. to 
6 p.m., each flock numbering four to eighty, commenced to come 
from the north on this date, wind strong N. Broadhaven, ten 
Wild Ducks, 8.30 a.m., wind strong S.W., rain. 

16th. — Kathlin Island, sixty Gannets, 3 p.m., wind fresh 
N.W., cloudy, going W. Eathlin O'Birne, twenty Barnacles, 
3 p.m., wind strong S., overcast. Arran Island North, flock of 
Gannets and Gulls, 4 p.m., wind fresh S., clear. 

17th. — Eathlin Island, 100 Skua Gulls, 2 p.m., wind fresh 
S.W., cloudy. 

ISth. — Barrels Eock Lt.-ship, large numbers of Gulls, 10 
a.m. to 5 p.m., wind strong S.S.E., clear, apparently feeding 
about the ship. Eockabill, Oct. 18th to 26th, twelve Eed- 
breasts, seven Common Wrens, and about fifteen young Starlings 
seen on the rock. Arranmore, flocks of Gannets from two to 
twenty began to come from the south, going north, on this 
date, and continue to the end of the month at intervals of 
fifteen to twenty minutes during daytime ; cannot be seen or 
heard during night. 

19th. — Barrels Eock Lt.-ship, small flocks of Starlings, 9.30 
a.m. to noon, wind high S.E., cloudy, trying to get to S.E., 
driven towards shore by the force of the wind; two Stormy 
Petrels, 11 a.m. to dusk, wind high S.E., remained at ship all 
day. Slyne Head South, one Snipe, 3 a.m., very stormy. 



94 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

showery, killed. Arran Island North, large flock of Gulls all day, 
very storray wind S.E. 

20th. — Barrels Rock Lt.-ship, large flocks of Larks, 10 a.m., 
wind very strong E.S.E., clear, going N. Howth Baily, flocks 
of Gulls flying in all directions during the day, wind strong S.E., 
gloom3^ Eathlin Island, fifty Plovers, 1 p.m., wind high, stormy, 
remained on island ; forty White-hacked Crows, always on island. 
Clare Island, large flock of Gannets, 9 a.m., wind strong E., 
going N.W. Ai-ran Island North, large flock of Gulls all day, 
wind very strong S.E., gloomy. 

21st. — Barrels Eock Lt.-ship, continuous flocks of Larks and 
Linnets, 10 to 11.30 a.m., wind strong E.S.E., overcast, going 
to E.N.E. Copeland Island, flock of Teal on Mew Island, 
11 a.m., wind E., stormy, rain ; stay here for winter. Eathlin 
O'Birne, four Barnacles, 3.30 p.m., wind strong E.S.E., overcast; 
thirty Gannets, 8.30 a.m. Arran Island South, six Golden- 
crested Wrens struck lantern, wind E., hazy, not killed; flew 
away at daylight. 

22nd. — Slyne Head South, one Woodcock, 1 a.m., wind very 
stormy S.S.E., killed, the only one got for three years; two 
Thrushes also killed. 

2Srd. — Tuskar, one flock of Starlings, 5 p.m., wind strong 
E.S.E., cloudy; another 11 p.m., very stormy E.S.E. wind, 
overcast, striking about one hour, forty killed. Innishtrahull, 
one Blackbird, 10 p.m., wind S.E., a hm-ricane, struck lantern; 
one Thrush, 10.30 p.m., struck lantern. Oyster Island North, 
several flocks of Barnacles, 10 a.m. to 1 p.m., wind fresh E.S.E., 
cloudy, twenty to fifty in each flock. 

24:th. — Old Head, Kinsale, five Golden-crested Wrens, 9.30 
p.m., wind light S.W^., hazy, struck lantern, none killed; the 
only ones seen this season. Barrels Eock Lt.-ship, flock of 
Linnets, 5 p.m., wind strong S.E., cloudy, going N.E. Tuskar, 
Blackbirds, Thrushes, and Larks, 10.30 p.m., wind E., stormy, 
overcast, striking until 3 a.m., many of each killed. Eathlin 
O'Birne, seven Barnacles, 4 p.m., wind strong E. 

25th. — Barrels Eock Lt.-ship, continuous flocks of Starlings, 
9.30 to 11.30 p.m., wind fresh S.E., one killed (young bird); too 
dark to notice direction of flight. Tuskar, Starlings and Larks, 
11 p.m., wind strong E.N.E., overcast, striking for one hour, 
fifteen Larks and twelve Starlings killed. Oyster Island North, 



IRISH COAST. 



d5 



thirty Books, 2 p.m., wind mod. E., cloudy. Clare Island, large 
flock of Books, 10 a.m., wind fresh E., fine, going N.E. Slyne 
Head North, two Thrushes, 2 a.m., wind mod. E., gloomy, 
killed. Arran Island North, large flock of Gulls all day, wdnd 
fresh E.S.E., gloomy. Arran Island South, two Ducks, 3.15 
p.m., wind fresh E., clear, going E. 

26th. — Fastnet, small flocks land-birds, 8 a.m., wind fresh E., 
gloomy; three Titmice killed, flying S. Tuskar, Starlings, 

8 p.m., wind strong E.N.E., overcast, twelve struck, four killed 
(young birds) ; Thrushes at midnight, wind same, five struck, 
one killed (young bird). Bathlin Island, continuous flocks of 
Gannets, 6 a.m. to 5 p.m., wind fresh E., overcast, going E. 
Bathlin O'Birne, continuous flocks of Sea Gulls, 9 a.m., wind 
light E.S.E., overcast. Clare Island, continuous flocks of Puffins 
all day, wind fresh E.N.E., blue sky, cloudy, going N.W. 

'2,7th. — Barrels Bock Lt.-ship, continuous flocks of Linnets, 

9 to 10.30 a.m., wind fresh E., gloomy, going N.E. Tuskar, 
" Grey-breasted Blackbird," 7 p.m., wind strong E.N.E., overcast, 
struck and killed ; Starlings from 9 p.m. to 3 a.m., wind fresh E. 
to N.E., overcast, striking constantly, five killed; Blackbirds and 
"Fieldfares or Mountain Thrushes" striking occasionally between 
same hours, seven Blackbirds and fifteen Fieldfares killed ; many 
of these birds will die on rock, being too exhausted to leave, 
particularly Starlings. Bockabill, six Larks, three young Star- 
lings, and one female Blackbird killed in night, wind E., stormy, 
very dark, Starlings much wasted. Bathlin Island, thirty 
Linnets, 12 noon, wind fresh S.E., overcast, remained on island. 
Arran Island North, thirty Gulls different species all day, wind 
light S.E., gloomy. 

28i/i. — Barrels Bock Lt.-ship, continuous flocks of Starlings, 
8.30 to 11 p.m., wind fresh N., cloudy, apparently going E. 
Tuskar, one Golden-crested Wren, 8 p.m., wind fresh N., over- 
cast, gloomy, killed; Fieldfares, 10.30 p.m., three killed; also 
one Green Linnet. Kish Bank Lt.-ship, a flock of Ducks, 1.30 
p.m., wind mod. N.W., clear. Bockabill, one Golden-crested 
Wren and two young female Blackbirds, killed in night, clear, 
showery ; the first Goldcrest I ever saw at this station. Arran 
Island North, twenty Gannets, 2 to 4 p.m., wind light N.E., 
gloomy. 

29t/i.— No entry. 



96i REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

SOth. — Howtb Baily, six Pigeons flying inland, 2.15 p.m., 
wind light N.E., clear. Slyne Head North, continuous flocks of 
Gulls and Gannets going S., 10 a.m. to 3 p.m., wind light 
S.E., clear. 

Slst. — Arran Island South, seventeen Barnacles, 11.30 a.m., 
wind very strong S.E., rain, going E. 

NOVEMBER. 

1st. — Eockabill, one Hawk and one Common Wren, 4 p.m., 
wind light S., clear ; Hawk hovering about rock. Rathlin 
O'Birne, four Plover, 7.30 a.m., wind strong S.W., overcast, 
remained until Nov. 7th ; continuous flocks of Gannets and 
Sea Gulls. 

2?id. — Rockabill, one Common Wren, four Titmice, 8 a.m., 
wind strong S.E., clear. Rathlin Island, seventy Starlings, 
7 a.m., wind strong S.E., overcast, young birds coming from E. 
Broadhaven, thirty Barnacles, 10 a.m., wind fresh N.W., clear. 
Ai-ran Island South, two Woodcocks, 3.15 p.m., wind strong 
S.S.E., overcast, going E. 

3rc?.^No entry. 

4th. — Rockabill, thirteen large birds like Ducks or Wigeon 
two miles off, 10 a.m., wind light S.S.W., clear, flying S. 
Rathlin Island, thirty-seven Starlings, 11 a.m., wind fresh S.E., 
clear, coming from E. Oyster Island North, small flocks of Wigeon 
and Barnacle, 10 to 12 a.m., wind fresh S:S.W., gloomy. Broad- 
haven, five Solan Geese, 11.10 a.m., wind strong S., clear. 

5th. — Tuskar, five Swallows going S., 2.30 p.m., wind fresh 
S.W., blue sky ; continuous flocks of Puffins, 2 to 4 p.m., going 
westward. Kish Bank Lt.-ship, several flocks of Barnacle, 
wind W\ and S.W., clear. 

Qth. — Barrels Rock Lt.-ship, flocks of Starlings, 9 to 11.30 
p.m., wind light S.S.W., overcast, apparently going N.E. Kish 
Bank Lt.-ship, several flocks of Barnacle, wind S.W., clear. 
Broadhaven, twelve Wild Geese, 8.10 a.m., wind very strong S., 

foggy. 

7th. — Barrels Rock Lt.-ship, small flock of Linnets, 10.30 
a.m., wind fresh S.S.E., heavy rain, hazy, going N.E. Rathlin 
Island, forty Black Crows, 3 p.fti., wind fresh S.W., clear, going 
S. Arran Island North, ten Gannets, wind fresh S.W., gloomy : 
also a large flock of Gulls. 



IRISH COAST. 97 

8^/i. — Kish Bank Lt.-ship, several flocks of Wild Ducks, wind 
S.W., gloomy. Innishtrahull, one small Hawk, 10 a.m., wind 
fresh S.E., hazy. 

9th. — Howth Baily, twenty- nine Crows flying to the south, 
12.10 p.m., wind light S.W., gloomy. 

10th. — Eathlin Island, 600 Gulls, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., wind 
fresh S.E., gloomy, on the water. Clare Island, flocks of Grey 
Linnets, 7.30 a.m., wind strong S.S.W., cloudy, going S. Slyne 
Head North, continuous flocks of Barnacle going S. from 9 a.m. 
to 2 p.m., wind fresh S.W., rain. 

11th. — Oyster Island North, flock of Starlings and Lapwings, 
11.30 a.m., wind light S.E., gloomy, Starlings apparently old 
birds. 

12tJi. — Eathlin Island, 400 Gulls, 7 a.m. to 2 p.m., wind very 
strong N.W., gloomy, on the water. Slyne Head Noi^th, one 
Blackbird, 4 a.m., wind light S.W., misty, killed. 

ISth. — Kish Bank Lt.-ship, a flock of Chaffinches going from 
E. to W., clear. 

14th. — No entry. 

15th. — Copeland Island, eleven Snow Buntings, 3 p.m., wind 
strong W., went to mainland. Clare Island, small flock of Wild 
Ducks, 4 p.m., wind very strong W., cloudy, ugly, going S.E. 

16th. — Howth Baily, seven Cormorants flying N., 11.15 a.m., 
wind fresh S.W., cloudy. Eathlin Island, seven Gannets, 4 p.m., 
wind very strong N.W., gloomy, going E. 

17^//. — Eathlin Island, thirty Linnets, 11 a.m., wind strong 
N.W., showers, going S. 

18th. — Coningbeg Lt.-ship, four Gannets, 10 a.m., wind fresh 
S., rain, flying E. Two Larks killed. Kish Bank Lt.-ship, a 
large flock of Starlings going from E. to W., hazy. Copeland 
Island, six Magpies, 10.30 a.m., wind fresh S.E., went to main- 
land. Oyster Island North, fifty Barnacle, 10.20 a.m., wind 
light S.E., rain, going S.E. 

19^/i. — Eathlin O'Birne, eight " Sepoys," 8 a.m., wind strong 
S., overcast. 

20th. — Galley Head, fifty Golden Plovers, 1 p.m., wind fresh 
E.N.E., clear, frosty, flying N. Coningbeg Lt.-ship, Gannets 
from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., passing E. and W. in two's and four's, 
wind strong S.W., clear. Eathlin Island, seventeen Golden 
Plover, 10 a.m., wind very strong W., clear, came from north, 





98 REPORT ON THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

stopped on island. Slyne Head North, flock of Rooks going N., 
12 noon, wind light S., rain. 

21st. — Coningbeg Lt.-ship, Gannets from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., 
passing E. and W., wind strong W. 

22nd. — Arran Island South, large numbers of Skua Gulls 
passing, wind W., stormy, rain, thunder, going S. 

23/tL — Barrels Eock Lt.-ship, flock of ten Gannets, 3 p.m., 
wind strong N.W., clear, going W. Eathhn Island, thirty-six 
Starlings, 3 p.m., wind very strong S.W., clear, young birds 
coming from N. 

24t/i. — No entry. 

25th. — Tuskar, one Golden Eagle, 8 a.m., wind strong S.W., 
overcast, going N.W. Clare Island, large flock of Pigeons, 
1 p.m., wind very strong S., gloomy, rain, going W. 

26th. — Barrels Rock Lt.-ship, one Stormy Petrel, 2 p.m., 
wind very strong S.S.W., rain ; remained at ship all the evening. 
Innishtrahull, Rooks, 2 p.m., stormy. 

27th. — Rathlin Island, fifty Black Crows, 10 a.m., wind very 
strong S.W., rain, squally, overcast, coming from S. Innish- 
trahull, Rooks, 12 noon, stormy. Clare Island, large flock 
of Grey Linnets, 8 a.m., wind very strong W.N.W., cloudy, 
going S. 

2Sth. — Rathlin O'Bh'ne, nine Barnacle, 4 p.m., wind strong 
W.N.W., rainy. Oyster Island North, small flocks of Barnacle 
and Wigeon, 10.30 a.m. to 2 p.m., wind strong N.W., showery, 
going N.W. 

29th. — Galley Head, eleven Gannets going E., 5.30 p.m., 
wind strong W.S.W. 

SOth. — Slyne Head North, two Starlings and three Thrushes, 
5 a.m., wind light S.W., rain, all killed. 

DECEMBER. 

1st. — Rathlin Island, sixrWannets, 9 a.m., wind strong S., 
clear, going E. Rathlin O'Birne, five Barnacle, 3.40 p.m., wind 
strong S., overcast. Broadhaven, twenty Barnacle, 1.10 p.m., 
wind fresh S.W., rain. Slyne Head North, flock of Barnacle 
going S., 11 a.m., wind fresh S.W., showers. 

2jid, — Broadhaven, eighteen' Barnacle, 2.10 p.m., wind fresh 
S.W., clear. 

drd. — Mine Head, " Grey " and Green Plovers from sunrise 



IRISH COAST. 99 

to sunset, wind light N., frosty, above fifty in a flock. Galley 
Head, five Gannets going W., 10 a.m., wind strong W., rain. 

4th. — Barrels Eock Ll.-ship, large flock of Plover, 11 a.m., 
wind light S.W., clear, going S.E. Kathlin O'Birne, thirteen 
Barnacle, 8 p.m., wind fresh S., overcast. Clare Island, large 
flock of Wild Ducks, 3 p.m., wind strong S.W., fog, rain, 
going S.E. 

5th. — No entry, 

6th. — Kathlin O'Birne, fourteen Barnacle, 4 p.m., wind 
stormy S., rain. 

7th. — Kathlin Island, thirty- seven Starlings, 10 a.m., wind 
stormy S.W., clear, coming from N. 

Sth. — Broadhaven, fourteen Wild Geese, 1.10 p.m., wind 
fresh W., rain. 

9th. — No entry. 

10th. — Kish Bank Lt.-ship, a flock of Ducks, 1.30 p.m., wind 
mod. W.N.W., hazy. Kathlin Island, fifteen Linnets, 9 a.m., 
wind light S.W., overcast, going S. Kathlin O'Birne, five 
Barnacle, 3 p.m., wind fresh N.E., overcast. Broadhaven, one 
Solan Goose, 10.10 a.m., wind strong S.W., clear. Clare Island, 
small flock of Pigeons, 11 a.m., wind light E.S.E., blue sky, 
going W. 

11th. — Mine Head, large flocks of " Grey " and Green Plovers 
from sunrise to sunset, wind light N., frosty. Oyster Island 
North, large flock of Barnacle, 1 p.m., wind light S.E., thick, 
going S.E. Slyne Head North, continuous flocks of Gulls and 
Gannets going N., 8 a.m. to 2 p.m., wind light S.E., clear. 

l^tli. — Old Head, Kinsale, continuous flocks of Lapwing 
from 10 a.m. to 3.45 p.m., wind light N.E., clear, flying south; 
the first and only ones seen this season. Mine Head, seven 
"Wild Geese," 2 p.m., wind light N., frosty, going south; five 
"Wild Ducks," noon, wind N. Kathlin Island, 200 Gulls, 
7 a.m., wind strong S.W., gloomy, on the water. Broadhaven, 
twelve Barnacle, 11.10 a.m., wind strong S., clear. 

Idth. — Oyster Island North, several flocks of Barnacle and 
Wigeon, 10 a.m. to 12.30 p.m., wind fresh S.S.E., gloomy, 
going S.E. 

14:th. — No entry. 

Ibth. — Kathlin Island, 300 Gulls, 2 p.m., wind stormy N.W., 
showery, flying about. 



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